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Promoting employment of disabled women in Spain; Evaluating a policy

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  • Vall Castello, Judit
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    Abstract

    Even though the Disability System in Spain is designed to allow partially disabled individuals to combine the receipt of the benefits with a job, their employment rates have remained very low since 1996. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the results of an employment promotion policy introduced in Spain in 2004 which increased the deductions to the Social Security contributions paid by employers that hired disabled women. We apply difference-in-difference models and estimate a recursive bivariate probit model to evaluate the existence of shifts in employment trends in the women relative to the men sample conditioning on the existence of preexisting trends. We find that the impact of the policy is significant and we estimate an average elasticity of employment of 0.14 for partially and of 0.08 for totally disabled women relative to the deductions in the employer Social Security contributions. Finally, when we extrapolate the results beyond our sample, we estimate that 7100 disabled women were able to find a job in Spain due to the policy with an associated cost of 10,997.900 euro for the government.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Labour Economics.

    Volume (Year): 19 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 82-91

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:19:y:2012:i:1:p:82-91

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/labeco

    Related research

    Keywords: Disability benefits; Employment promotion; Policy evaluation;

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    References

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    1. Hugo Benítez-Silva & Richard Disney & Sergi Jiménez-Martín, 2010. "Disability, capacity for work and the business cycle: an international perspective," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 25, pages 483-536, 07.
    2. Bell, David & Heitmueller, Axel, 2009. "The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: Helping or hindering employment among the disabled?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 465-480, March.
    3. Christine Jolls & J.J. Prescott, 2004. "Disaggregating Employment Protection: The Case of Disability Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 10740, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Thomas DeLeire, 2000. "The Wage and Employment Effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 693-715.
    5. Rafael Lalive & Jean-Philippe Wuellrich & Josef Zweimüller, 2009. "Do Financial Incentives for Firms Promote Employment of Disabled Workers? A Regression Discontinuity Approach," NRN working papers 2009-11, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    6. Christine Jolls, 2004. "Identifying the Effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act Using State-Law Variation: Preliminary Evidence on Educational Participation Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 447-453, May.
    7. Betcherman, Gordon & Daysal, N. Meltem & Pagés, Carmen, 2010. "Do employment subsidies work? Evidence from regionally targeted subsidies in Turkey," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 710-722, August.
    8. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Angrist, 1998. "Consequences of Employment Protection? The Case of the Americans with Disabilities Act," Working papers 98-13, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    9. Yolanda F. Rebollo & J. Ignacio Pérez, 2008. "The use of permanent contracts across Spanish regions: Do regional wage subsidies work?," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2008/09, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.
    10. Kathleen Beegle & Wendy A. Stock, 2003. "The Labor Market Effects of Disability Discrimination Laws," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(4).
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    Cited by:
    1. Cueto, Begona & Miguel Á., Malo, 2014. "Do partial disability pensions close the earnings gap?," MPRA Paper 55920, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Jose I. Silva & Judit Vall-Castello, 2013. "Partial Disability System and Labor Market Adjustment: The Case of Spain," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 13-201, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    3. Pilar García-Gómez & Sergi Jiménez-Martín & JudiVall Castelló, 2013. "Financial incentives, health and retirement in Spain," Working Papers 2013-12, FEDEA.
    4. Silva, José I. & Vall-Castello, Judit, 2012. "Why Are So Many Disabled Individuals Not Working in Spain? A Job Search Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 6317, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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