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The structure and formation of business groups: Evidence from Korean chaebols

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  • Almeida, Heitor
  • Park, Sang Yong
  • Subrahmanyam, Marti G.
  • Wolfenzon, Daniel
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    Abstract

    We study the evolution of Korean chaebols (business groups) using ownership data. Chaebols grow vertically (as pyramids) when the controlling family uses well-established group firms ("central firms") to acquire firms with low pledgeable income and high acquisition premiums. Chaebols grow horizontally (through direct ownership) when the family acquires firms with high pledgeable income and low acquisition premiums. Central firms trade at a relative discount, due to shareholders' anticipation of value-destroying acquisitions. Our evidence is consistent with the selection of firms into different positions in the chaebol and ascribes the underperformance of pyramidal firms to a selection effect rather than tunneling.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

    Volume (Year): 99 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 447-475

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:99:y:2011:i:2:p:447-475

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

    Related research

    Keywords: Business groups Family firms Pyramids Cross-shareholdings Tunneling Mergers and acquisitions;

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    Cited by:
    1. Bena, Jan & Ortiz-Molina, Hernán, 2013. "Pyramidal ownership and the creation of new firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 798-821.
    2. Kim, Woochan & Sung, Taeyoon & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2011. "Does corporate governance risk at home affect investment choices abroad?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 25-41, September.
    3. Hwang, Lee-Seok & Kim, Hakkon & Park, Kwangwoo & Park, Rae Soo, 2013. "Corporate governance and payout policy: Evidence from Korean business groups," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 179-198.
    4. Byun, Hae-Young & Choi, Sunhwa & Hwang, Lee-Seok & Kim, Robert G., 2013. "Business group affiliation, ownership structure, and the cost of debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 311-331.
    5. Laetitia Lepetit & Amine Tarazi & Nadia Zedek, 2012. "Bank Regulatory Capital Adjustment and Ultimate Ownership Structure: Evidence from European Commercial Banks," Working Papers hal-00918577, HAL.
    6. Tristan Auvray & Olivier Brossard, 2013. "French connection: interlocking directorates and the ownership-control nexus in an insider governance system," CEPN Working Papers hal-00842582, HAL.
    7. Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar & Selarka, Ekta, 2012. "Does ownership concentration improve M&A outcomes in emerging markets?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 717-726.
    8. Larrain, Borja & Urzúa I., Francisco, 2013. "Controlling shareholders and market timing in share issuance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 661-681.
    9. Amine Tarazi & Nadia Zedek, 2013. "Excess Control Rights, Financial Crisis and Bank Profitability and Risk," Working Papers hal-00916550, HAL.
    10. Tristan Auvray & Olivier Brossard, 2013. "French connection: interlocking directorates and the ownership-control nexus in an insider governance system," Working Papers hal-00842582, HAL.

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