Racial bias in expert quality assessment: A study of newspaper movie reviews
AbstractNewspaper critics’ movie reviews are often used by potential movie viewers as signals of expert quality assessment. We investigate the existence and revenue impact of racial bias in these reviews. Using an expansive, novel dataset spanning 2003–2007, we find ratings for movies with a black lead actor and all white supporting cast are approximately 6 percent lower than for other racial compositions. These findings appear consistent with implicit discrimination, and result in an average revenue loss of up to 4 percent, or $2.57 million, per movie. Robustness checks show it is unlikely these results are driven by unobserved heterogeneity or random correlations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.
Volume (Year): 84 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jebo
Movies; Expert ratings; Quality assessment; Racial bias; Implicit discrimination;
Other versions of this item:
- Lona Fowdur & Vrinda Kadiyali & Jeffrey T. Prince, 2009. "Racial Bias in Expert Quality Assessment: A Study of Newspaper Movie Reviews," Working Papers 2010-13, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
- D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Economics; Underlying Principles
- D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
- D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search, Learning, and Information
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jehoshua Eliashberg & Anita Elberse & Mark A.A.M. Leenders, 2006. "The Motion Picture Industry: Critical Issues in Practice, Current Research, and New Research Directions," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 25(6), pages 638-661, 11-12.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2008. "Using Selection on Observed Variables to Assess Bias from Unobservables When Evaluating Swan-Ganz Catheterization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 345-50, May.
- Lisa George & Joel Waldfogel, 2003. "Who Affects Whom in Daily Newspaper Markets?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(4), pages 765-784, August.
- Wagner Kamakura & Suman Basuroy & Peter Boatwright, 2006. "Is silence golden? An inquiry into the meaning of silence in professional product evaluations," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 119-141, June.
- Joseph Price & Justin Wolfers, 2007.
"Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees,"
NBER Working Papers
13206, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ayres, Ian & Siegelman, Peter, 1995. "Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining for a New Car," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 304-21, June.
- Matthew Gentzkow & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2010.
"What Drives Media Slant? Evidence From U.S. Daily Newspapers,"
Econometric Society, vol. 78(1), pages 35-71, 01.
- Matthew Gentzkow & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2006. "What Drives Media Slant? Evidence from U.S. Daily Newspapers," NBER Working Papers 12707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sendhil Mullainathan & Andrei Shleifer, 2002.
NBER Working Papers
9295, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sendhil Mullainathan & Andrei Shleifer, 2002. "Media Bias," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1981, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Laura Giuliano & David I. Levine & Jonathon Leonard, 2006.
"Manager Race and the Race of New Hires,"
0722, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
- Giuliano, Laura & Levine, David I. & Leonard, Jonathan, 2006. "Manager Race and the Race of New Hires," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt2cb2q1h1, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- John Yinger, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Consumer Markets," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 23-40, Spring.
- Marianne Bertrand & Dolly Chugh & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2005. "Implicit Discrimination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 94-98, May.
- Beaman, Lori & Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra & Duflo, Esther & Pande, Rohini & Topalova, Petia, 2008.
"Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6922, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Beaman, Lori & Chattopadhyay, Raghebendra & Duflo, Esther & Pande, Rohini & Topalova, Petia, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," Working Paper Series rwp08-037, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Petia Topalova & Esther Duflo & Rohini Pande & Lori Beaman & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," Working Papers id:1617, eSocialSciences.
- Lori A. Beaman & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo & Rohini Pande & Petia Topalova, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," NBER Working Papers 14198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003.
"Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 1998. "Discrimination in the Small Business Credit Market," NBER Working Papers 6840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Avery, Christopher & Chevalier, Judith, 1999. "Identifying Investor Sentiment from Price Paths: The Case of Football Betting," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(4), pages 493-521, October.
- Amitabh Chandra, 2000. "Labor-Market Dropouts and the Racial Wage Gap: 1940-1990," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 333-338, May.
- Jeffrey Milyo & Tim Groseclose, 2005.
"A Measure of Media Bias,"
0501, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, revised 25 Aug 2005.
- Holbrook, Morris B, 1999. " Popular Appeal versus Expert Judgments of Motion Pictures," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 144-55, September.
- Goh, Jeremy C & Ederington, Louis H, 1993. " Is a Bond Rating Downgrade Bad News, Good News, or No News for Stockholders?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 2001-08, December.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2005.
"Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(1), pages 151-184, February.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2000. "Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools," NBER Working Papers 7831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kenneth J. Arrow, 1998. "What Has Economics to Say about Racial Discrimination?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 91-100, Spring.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.