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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers

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Author Info

  • Hayes, Dermot J.
  • Babcock, Bruce A.
  • Fabiosa, Jacinto F.
  • Tokgoz, Simla
  • Elobeid, Amani E.
  • Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward)
  • Dong, Fengxia
  • Hart, Chad E.
  • Chavez, Eddie C.
  • Pan, Suwen
  • Carriquiry, Miguel A.
  • Dumortier, Jerome

Abstract

We examined four evolution paths of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium world agricultural sector model in CARD that includes the new RFS in the 2007 EISA, a two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. The third scenario considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price, while the last is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax credit when the energy price is high. Standard results hold where the biofuel sector expands with higher energy price, raising the prices of most agricultural commodities through demand side adjustment channels for primary feedstocks and supply side adjustment channels for substitute crops and livestock. On the other hand, the biofuel sector shrinks coupled with opposite impacts on agricultural commodities with the removal of all support including the tax credit. Also, we find that given distribution bottlenecks, cellulosic ethanol crowds marketing channels resulting in a corn-based ethanol price that is discounted. The blenders’ credit and consumption mandates provide a price floor for ethanol and for corn. Finally, the tight linkage between the energy and agricultural sectors resulting from the expanding biofuel sector may raise the possibility of spillover effects of OPEC’s market power on the agricultural sector.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Southern Agricultural Economics Association in its journal Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 41 (2009)
Issue (Month): 02 (August)
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:ags:joaaec:53093

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Web page: http://www.saea.org/jaae/jaae.htm
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Keywords: biofuel; EISA; ethanol; tax credit; world agricultural sector model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q13; Q18; Q38;

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References

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  1. Westhoff, Patrick C. & Thompson, Wyatt & Meyer, Seth D., 2008. "Biofuels: Impact of Selected Farm Bill Provisions and other Biofuel Policy Options," FAPRI-MU Report Series 37772, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute at University of Missouri.
  2. Amani Elobeid & Simla Tokgoz & Dermot J. Hayes & Bruce A. Babcock & Chad E. Hart, 2006. "Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-bp49, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  3. Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G. & Kaufman, James & Meyer, Seth D. & Thompson, Wyatt, 2008. "The Impact of Biotech Corn Traits on Ethanol Production," Environmental and Rural Development Impacts Conference, October 15-16, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri 53499, Farm Foundation, Transition to a Bio Economy Conferences.
  4. Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  5. Xiaodong Du & Dermot J. Hayes, 2008. "Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 08-wp467, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  6. Simla Tokgoz & Amani Elobeid & Jacinto F. Fabiosa & Dermot J. Hayes & Bruce A. Babcock & Tun-Hsiang (Edward) Yu & Fengxia Dong & Chad E. Hart & John C. Beghin, 2007. "Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 07-sr101, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  7. Du, Xiaodong & Hayes, Dermot J., 2008. "Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and On the Profitability of U.S. Oil Refinery Industry," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6353, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  8. Du, Xiaodong & Hayes, Dermot J., 2010. "The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. And Regional Gasoline Markets," Staff General Research Papers 31483, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  9. Tokgoz, Simla & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Hayes, Dermot J. & Babcock, Bruce A. & Yu, Tun-Hsiang & Dong, Fengxia & Hart, Chad E., 2008. "Bottlenecks, Drought, and Oil Price Spikes: Impact on U.S. Ethanol and Agricultural Sectors," Staff General Research Papers 12935, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  10. Thompson, Wyatt & Meyer, Seth D. & Westhoff, Patrick C., 2008. "Model of the US Ethanol Market," FAPRI-MU Report Series 37971, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute at University of Missouri.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Condon, Nicole & Klemick, Heather & Wolverton, Ann, 2013. "Impacts of Ethanol Policy on Corn Prices: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Evidence," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149940, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  2. Rebecca S. Dodder & Amani Elobeid & Timothy L. Johnson & P. Ozge Kaplan & Lyubov A. Kurkalova & Silvia Secchi & Simla Tokgoz, 2011. "Environmental Impacts of Emerging Biomass Feedstock Markets: Energy, Agriculture, and the Farmer," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 11-wp526, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  3. Bouët, Antoine & Dimaranan, Betina V. & Valin, Hugo, 2010. "Modeling the global trade and environmental impacts of biofuel policies," IFPRI discussion papers 1018, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Wetzstein, M. & Wetzstein, H., 2011. "Four myths surrounding U.S. biofuels," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 4308-4312, July.
  5. Huang, Jikun & Yang, Jun & Msangi, Siwa & Rozelle, Scott & Weersink, Alfons, 2012. "Biofuels and the poor: Global impact pathways of biofuels on agricultural markets," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 439-451.
  6. Pavel Ciaian & d'Artis Kancs, 2009. "Interdependencies in the Energy-Bioenergy-Food Price Systems: A Cointegration Analysis," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2009_06, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  7. Wetzstein, Michael E., 2010. "Should We Invest in Biofuels?," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 42(03), August.
  8. Pavel Ciaian & d'Artis Kancs, 2011. "Food, Energy and Environment : is Bioenergy the missing link?," LICOS Discussion Papers 29211, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  9. Paudel, Krishna P. & Timilsina, Govinda R., 2010. "Would There Be Surplus Grains for Biofuels? An Assessment of Agro-economic Factors and Biofuel Production Potential at the Global Level," Staff Papers 113125, Louisiana State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness.
  10. Moschini, GianCarlo & Cui, Jingbo & Lapan, Harvey, 2012. "Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects," Staff General Research Papers 35548, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. Okwo, Adaora & Thomas, Valerie M., 2014. "Biomass feedstock contracts: Role of land quality and yield variability in near term feasibility," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 67-80.

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