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Faculty without Students: Resource Allocation in Higher Education

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  • William R. Johnson
  • Sarah Turner

Abstract

Colleges and universities display substantial differences in the ratio of students to faculty across fields or disciplines. At Harvard University, for example, economics has about 16 students majoring in the subject per full-time-teaching equivalent, while in other departments such as astronomy, Slavic, German, and Celtic, the number of teaching faculty exceeds the number of student majors. We begin by presenting some evidence on the extent of the variation in faculty resource allocation by field and the broad changes over the last several decades. We then consider potential economic explanations for these striking patterns. For example, a basic education production function, which seeks to maximize aggregate student learning subject to a faculty salary budget constraint, will require that faculty be allocated across fields so that relative marginal gains in student learning equal relative faculty salaries. Differences across fields in student-faculty ratios could then arise either from differences in the pedagogical technology across fields or variation in relative faculty salaries. Additional university goals, such as research and graduate program productivity, or adjustment costs, as imposed by the tenure system, could also generate variation across fields in student-faculty ratios. However, we have only limited evidence that these arguments can explain the ongoing disparities in student-faculty ratios across fields and disciplines, which suggests that a substantial part of the explanation may reside in the politics rather than the economics of decision making in institutions of higher education.

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File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.23.2.169
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File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/app/2302_johnson_turner_appendix.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal Journal of Economic Perspectives.

Volume (Year): 23 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (Spring)
Pages: 169-89

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Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:23:y:2009:i:2:p:169-89

Note: DOI: 10.1257/jep.23.2.169
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  1. Bound, John & Turner, Sarah, 2007. "Cohort crowding: How resources affect collegiate attainment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 877-899, June.
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  8. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2006. "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," NBER Working Papers 12139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  10. Polachek, Solomon William, 1981. "Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 60-69, February.
  11. Kahn, Lisa B., 2010. "The long-term labor market consequences of graduating from college in a bad economy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 303-316, April.
  12. John Bound & Sarah Turner, 2007. "Understanding the Increased Time to the Baccalaureate Degree," Discussion Papers 06-043, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  13. Richard B. Freeman, 1976. "A cobweb model of the supply and starting salary of new engineers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(2), pages 236-248, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Regina T. Riphahn & Martina Eschelbach & Guido Heineck & Steffen Müller, 2010. "Kosten und Nutzen der Ausbildung an Tertiärbildungsinstitutionen im Vergleich," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11(2), pages 103-131, 05.
  2. William E. Becker & William H. Greene & John J. Siegfried, 2010. "Do Undergraduate Majors or Ph.D. Students Affect Faculty Size?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3065, CESifo Group Munich.

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