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Exchange Rate Regime, Real Exchange Rate, Trade Flows and Foreign Direct Investments: The Case of Morocco

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  • Jamal Bouoiyour
  • Serge Rey

Abstract

We study the behavior of the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) of the dirham against the European currencies (Europe of the 15), over the period 1960-2000 (annual data). We measure the volatility using standard deviation, and the misalignments as the difference between the actual REER and the equilibrium REER (NATREX model). We show that a rise of the volatility of the dirham reduces the trade flows (exports and imports). The misalignments affect also the trade flows: an overvaluation leads to a reduction in Morocco exports from, to a raise of Morocco imports, and globally to a deterioration of the trade balance with the European Union. On the other hand, neither the volatility nor the misalignments have an effect on the direct investments (FDI) in favor of Morocco.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by African Development Bank in its journal African Development Review.

Volume (Year): 17 (2005)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 302-334

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Handle: RePEc:adb:adbadr:897

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  1. McKenzie, Michael D. & Brooks, Robert D., 1997. "The impact of exchange rate volatility on German-US trade flows," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 73-87, April.
  2. Franke, Gunter, 1991. "Exchange rate volatility and international trading strategy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 292-307, June.
  3. Kenneth A. Froot & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment: An Imperfect Capital Markets Approach," NBER Working Papers 2914, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Campa, Joe Manuel, 1993. "Entry by Foreign Firms in the United States under Exchange Rate Uncertainty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 614-22, November.
  5. Peter A. Petri, 1997. "Trade Strategies for the Southern Mediterranean," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 127, OECD Publishing.
  6. Ethier, Wilfred, 1973. "International Trade and the Forward Exchange Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 494-503, June.
  7. Baum, Christopher F. & Caglayan, Mustafa & Barkoulas, John T., 2001. "Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Firm Profitability," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 565-576, October.
  8. Khalid Sekkat & Aristomene Varoudakis, 2000. "Exchange rate management and manufactured exports in Sub-Saharan Africa," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/7342, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  9. Baffes, John & Elbadawi, Ibrahim A. & O'Connell, Stephen A., 1997. "Single-equation estimation of the equilibrium real exchange rate," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1800, The World Bank.
  10. Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  11. Peter B. Clark, 1973. "Uncertainty, Exchange Risk, And The Level Of International Trade," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 11(3), pages 302-313, 09.
  12. Corden, W Max, 1993. "Exchange Rate Policies for Developing Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 198-207, January.
  13. Ofair Razin & Susan M. Collins, 1997. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignments and Growth," NBER Working Papers 6174, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Chowdhury, Abdur R, 1993. "Does Exchange Rate Volatility Depress Trade Flows? Evidence from Error-Correction Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 700-706, November.
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Cited by:
  1. niaz ahmad mohd, Naseem & yusop, Zulkornain & masron, Tajul ariffin, 2009. "How did the Malaysian real exchange rate misalign during the 1997 Asian crisis?," MPRA Paper 44922, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Brixiova Zuzana & Egert Balazs & Essid Thouraya Hadj Amor, 2014. "The Real Exchange Rate and External Competitiveness in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 27, April.
  3. Naseem, N.A.M & Tan, Hui-Boon & Hamizah, M.S, 2008. "Exchange Rate Misalignment, Volatility and Import Flows in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 41571, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. n.a.m, Naseem & m.s, Hamizah, 2013. "Exchange Rate Misalignment and Economic Growth: Recent Evidence in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 52447, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Baccouche, Rafik & Bouoiyour, Jamal & Hatem, M’Henni & Mouley, Sami, 2008. "Dynamique des investissements, mutations sectorielles et convertibilité du compte de capital : impacts des mesures de libéralisation et expériences comparées Tunisie - Maroc
    [Dynamics of invest
    ," MPRA Paper 38148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. bouoiyour, jamal, 2003. "Trade and GDP Growth in Morocco: Short-run or Long-run Causality?," MPRA Paper 28859, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. repec:pra:mprapa:37325 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Claudio Bravo-Ortega, 2013. "Do Multilateral Trade Linkages Explain Bilateral Real Exchange Rate Volatility?," Working Papers wp377, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  9. Zuzana Brixiova & Balázs Égert & Thouraya Hadj Amor Essid, 2013. "Working Paper 187 - The Real Exchange Rate and External Competitiveness in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia," Working Paper Series 991, African Development Bank.

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