Making water affordable to all: A typology and evaluation of options for urban water pricing
An important criterion for the design of urban water prices is the affordability of water supply for poor customers. This paper presents a typology of water pricing options which policy-makers have at their disposal in order to address affordability. A review of theoretical insights and empirical experiences reveals, however, how the real-world performance of these options depends on the characteristics of their technological and socio-economic environment. Moreover, possible trade-offs between affordability and other criteria, including efficiency, financial sustainability and administrative simplicity, are pointed out. Thereby, the paper is meant to assist policy-makers in identifying water pricing options which are appropriate for their context.
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