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Ist Netzneutralität tatsächlich gut? Eine Neubewertung vor dem Hintergrund der Regulierung in den USA und in der EU sowie aktueller Forschungsergebnisse

Author

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  • Briglauer, Wolfgang
  • Stocker, Volker
  • Stockhammer, Paul

Abstract

Bereits im Jahre 2002 prägte der US-amerikanische Rechtswissenschaftler Tim Wu den Begriff der Netzneutralität und legte dabei den Grundstein für das Narrativ; dass explizite Verhaltensregeln für Anbieter von breitbandigen Internetzugangsdiensten (Internet Service Provider) unerlässlich seien, um das Ziel eines offenen und diskriminierungsfreien Internets zu erreichen (Wu, 2002, 2003). Damit verbunden war die Hoffnung, Netzneutralitätsregulierung würde Innovationen, also die Entwicklung neuer Internetdienste, fördern, was wiederum die Nachfrage der Verbraucher erhöhen und schlussendlich zu weiteren Investitionen in die Breitbandinfrastruktur führen würde. Dabei weisen die Netzneutralitätsregulierungen in den USA und der EU stark unterschiedliche Verläufe auf: In beiden Jurisdiktionen wurde im Jahr 2015 eine strenge Regulierung eingeführt. Im Jahr 2018 wurde das relativ strenge Regulierungsregime in den USA jedoch wieder aufgehoben, weshalb es sich seither fundamental von den nach wie vor in der EU geltenden strengen Regelungen unterscheidet. Da derzeit eine Revision der europäischen Netzneutralitätsrichtlinien ansteht, stellt sich die Frage nach dem richtigen Weg bzw. ob die aktuellen Netzneutralitätsregulierungen tatsächlich zielführend sind? Umfangreiche theoretische Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass strenge Netzneutralitätsregulierungen keinesfalls eindeutig positive Effekte aufweisen. Im Gegenteil: Der überwiegende Teil dieser Forschungen kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass solche Regulierungen negativ auf Investitionen wirken und die Verbraucherpreise tendenziell steigen lassen. So fallen ohne Netzneutralitätsregulierungen die Möglichkeiten und Anreize für Anbieter breitbandiger Internetzugangsdienste in neue Infrastrukturen zu investieren höher aus. Auch im Hinblick auf die gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekte führt Netzneutralität zumeist zu Ineffizienzen und Wohlfahrtsverlusten. Aktuelle empirische Forschungsarbeiten bestätigen die negativen Auswirkungen der Netzneutralitätsregulierungen insbesondere in Hinblick auf Netzinvestitionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund muss die aktuelle Netzneutralitätsregulierung in der EU kritisch hinterfragt und angepasst werden. Die Forschungsergebnisse legen nahe, dass statt einer strikten Netzneutralitätsregulierung im Voraus (ex ante) Anbietern breitbandiger Internetzugangsdienste mehr Preis- und Qualitätsgestaltungsmöglichkeiten eingeräumt werden sollte. Dies sollte mit Sanktionsmöglichkeiten kombiniert werden, wenn Fälle missbräuchlicher Diskriminierung tatsächlich auftreten. Entsprechend ist zu hoffen, dass die Forschungsergebnisse in der aktuellen Revision der europäischen Netzneutralitätsrichtlinien in Sinne einer rationalitäts- und evidenzbasierten Regulierung Berücksichtigung finden. Schließlich sei darauf hingewiesen, dass die Netzneutralitätsregulierungen auch für mobiles Internet gelten, obwohl sich der größte Teil der Forschungsarbeiten bislang auf leitungsgebundene Netzwerkinfrastrukturen konzentriert hat Insbesondere der derzeitige Rollout von SG-Mobilfunknetzen erfordert eine Neuausrichtung des bestehenden Netzneutralitätsparadigmas.

Suggested Citation

  • Briglauer, Wolfgang & Stocker, Volker & Stockhammer, Paul, 2019. "Ist Netzneutralität tatsächlich gut? Eine Neubewertung vor dem Hintergrund der Regulierung in den USA und in der EU sowie aktueller Forschungsergebnisse," Policy Notes 38, EcoAustria – Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ecoapn:38
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    References listed on IDEAS

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