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Out of Equilibrium Dynamics with Decentralized Exchange Cautious Trading and Convergence to Efficiency

Author

Listed:
  • Ghosal, Sayantan

    (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)

  • Porter, James

    (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)

Abstract

Is the result that equilibrium trading outcomes are efficient in markets without frictions robust to a scenario where agents' beliefs and plans aren't already aligned at their equilibrium values? In this paper, starting from a situation where agents' beliefs and plans aren't already aligned at their equilibrium values, we study whether out of equilibrium trading converges to efficient allocations. We show that out-of-equilibrium trading does converge with probability 1 to an effcient allocation even when traders have limited information and trade cautiously. In economies where preferences can be represented by Cobb-Douglass utility functions, we show, numerically, that the rate of convergence will be exponential. We show that experimentation leads to convergence in some examples where multilateral exchange is essential to achieve gains from trade. We prove that experimentation does converge with probability 1 to an efficient allocation and the speed of convergence remains exponential with Cobb-Douglass utility functions.

Suggested Citation

  • Ghosal, Sayantan & Porter, James, 2010. "Out of Equilibrium Dynamics with Decentralized Exchange Cautious Trading and Convergence to Efficiency," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 928, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:wrk:warwec:928
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    File URL: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/research/workingpapers/2010/twerp_928.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gale,Douglas, 2000. "Strategic Foundations of General Equilibrium," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521644105, March.
    2. Ghosal, Sayantan & Morelli, Massimo, 2004. "Retrading in market games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 151-181, March.
    3. Allan M. Feldman, 1973. "Bilateral Trading Processes, Pairwise Optimally, and Pareto Optimality," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(4), pages 463-473.
    4. Gintis Herbert, 2006. "The Emergence of a Price System from Decentralized Bilateral Exchange," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-15, December.
    5. Fisher, Franklin M, 1981. "Stability, Disequilibrium Awareness, and the Perception of New Opportunities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(2), pages 279-317, March.
    6. Herbert Gintis, 2007. "The Dynamics of General Equilibrium," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(523), pages 1280-1309, October.
    7. Rubinstein, Ariel & Wolinsky, Asher, 1985. "Equilibrium in a Market with Sequential Bargaining," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(5), pages 1133-1150, September.
    8. Gale, Douglas M, 1986. "Bargaining and Competition Part I: Characterization," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 785-806, July.
    9. Gode, Dhananjay K & Sunder, Shyam, 1993. "Allocative Efficiency of Markets with Zero-Intelligence Traders: Market as a Partial Substitute for Individual Rationality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 119-137, February.
    10. Robert Axtell, 2005. "The Complexity of Exchange," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(504), pages 193-210, June.
    11. McLennan, Andrew & Sonnenschein, Hugo, 1991. "Sequential Bargaining as a Noncooperative Foundation for Walrasian Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(5), pages 1395-1424, September.
    12. Goldman, Steven M & Starr, Ross M, 1982. "Pairwise, t-Wise, and Pareto Optimalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 593-606, May.
    13. Gale, Douglas M, 1986. "Bargaining and Competition Part II: Existence," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 807-818, July.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    out-of-equilibrium ; cautious ; trading ; efficiency; experimenting ; computation JEL Codes: C62 ; C63 ; C78;

    JEL classification:

    • C62 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
    • C63 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computational Techniques
    • C78 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory

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