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Money in Market Clearing


  • Mohammad Gani

    (Economic Science Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh.)


Market clearing is the central issue in macroeconomics. Two centuries of debate on Say’s Law indicates that the issue is not yet settled. This essay proposes that double coincidence is a necessary condition for market clearing, in addition to the equality of demand and supply at equilibrium prices. However, the literature does not recognize necessity of double coincidence. Jevons (1875) gave shape to the conventional wisdom on double coincidence. The idea is that it is peculiar to barter, and that money overcomes this inconvenience. This is a fallacy. It prevents the development of a theory of money as a necessary medium of indirect exchange. It hides the role of money in market clearing. By recognizing double coincidence as a necessary condition for any trade, and the role of money in market clearing, economics can become a much stronger and practically more useful science. Monetary reform can correct the perverse circulation of money and prevent involuntary unemployment, undue instability, and excess debt.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad Gani, 2004. "Money in Market Clearing," Macroeconomics 0410009, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:0410009
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 21. A fresh new monetary theory makes classical, Austrian, Keynesian, monetarist, and Lucasian models obsolete.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
    2. Gani, Mohammad Osman, 2003. "Foundations of Economic Science," MPRA Paper 67542, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    More about this item


    Market clearing; neutrality of money; double coincidence; unemployment; instability; debt.;

    JEL classification:

    • B41 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - Economic Methodology
    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D46 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Value Theory
    • D51 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Exchange and Production Economies
    • D71 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
    • D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances; Revolutions
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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