IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

On Tail Index Estimation for Dependent, Heterogenous Data


  • Jonathan B. Hill

    (Florida International University)


In this paper we analyze the asymptotic properties of the popular distribution tail index estimator by B. Hill (1975) for possibly heavy- tailed, heterogenous, dependent processes. We prove the Hill estimator is weakly consistent for processes with extremes that form mixingale sequences, and asymptotically normal for processes with extremes that are near-epoch-dependent on the extremes of a mixing process. Our limit theory covers infinitely many ARFIMA and FIGARCH processes, stochastic recurrence equations, and simple bilinear processes. Moreover, we develop a simple non-parametric kernel estimator of the asymptotic variance of the Hill estimator, and prove consistency for extremal-NED processes.

Suggested Citation

  • Jonathan B. Hill, 2005. "On Tail Index Estimation for Dependent, Heterogenous Data," Econometrics 0505005, EconWPA, revised 24 Mar 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:0505005
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 23

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. repec:cup:etheor:v:13:y:1997:i:3:p:353-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Davidson, James, 1993. "An L1-convergence theorem for heterogeneous mixingale arrays with trending moments," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 301-304, March.
    3. Caner, Mehmet, 1998. "Tests for cointegration with infinite variance errors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 155-175, June.
    4. B. N. Cheng & S. T. Rachev, 1995. "Multivariate Stable Futures Prices," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(2), pages 133-153.
    5. Prasad Bidarkota & J Huston Mcculloch, 2004. "Testing for persistence in stock returns with GARCH-stable shocks," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 256-265.
    6. Prasad V. Bidarkota & J. Huston McCulloch, 1998. "Optimal univariate inflation forecasting with symmetric stable shocks," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(6), pages 659-670.
    7. Davidson, James, 2004. "Moment and Memory Properties of Linear Conditional Heteroscedasticity Models, and a New Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22(1), pages 16-29, January.
    8. Akgiray, Vedat & Booth, G Geoffrey, 1988. "The Stable-Law Model of Stock Returns," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 6(1), pages 51-57, January.
    9. Chan, Ngai Hang & Tran, Lanh Tat, 1989. "On the First-Order Autoregressive Process with Infinite Variance," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(03), pages 354-362, December.
    10. de Jong, Robert M., 1997. "Central Limit Theorems for Dependent Heterogeneous Random Variables," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(03), pages 353-367, June.
    11. Davidson, James, 1992. "A Central Limit Theorem for Globally Nonstationary Near-Epoch Dependent Functions of Mixing Processes," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(03), pages 313-329, September.
    12. Davidson, James, 1993. "The Central Limit Theorem for Globally Nonstationary Near-Epoch Dependent Functions of Mixing Processes: The Asymptotically Degenerate Case," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(03), pages 402-412, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Rossi, Eduardo & Santucci de Magistris, Paolo, 2013. "Long memory and tail dependence in trading volume and volatility," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 94-112.
    2. Iglesias, Emma M., 2015. "Value at Risk of the main stock market indexes in the European Union (2000–2012)," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 1-13.
    3. Bryan Kelly & Hao Jiang, 2013. "Tail Risk and Asset Prices," NBER Working Papers 19375, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Hill, Jonathan B. & Aguilar, Mike, 2013. "Moment condition tests for heavy tailed time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 172(2), pages 255-274.
    5. Moosup Kim & Sangyeol Lee, 2016. "On the tail index inference for heavy-tailed GARCH-type innovations," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 68(2), pages 237-267, April.
    6. João Nicolau & Paulo M.M. Rodrigues, 2015. "A New Regression-Based Tail Index Estimator: An Application to Exchange Rates," Working Papers w201514, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    7. Iglesias, Emma M. & Linton, Oliver, 2009. "Estimation of tail thickness parameters from GJR-GARCH models," UC3M Working papers. Economics we094726, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    8. Hill, Jonathan B. & Prokhorov, Artem, 2016. "GEL estimation for heavy-tailed GARCH models with robust empirical likelihood inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(1), pages 18-45.
    9. Trapani, Lorenzo, 2016. "Testing for (in)finite moments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 191(1), pages 57-68.
    10. Hill, Jonathan B. & Shneyerov, Artyom, 2013. "Are there common values in first-price auctions? A tail-index nonparametric test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 174(2), pages 144-164.
    11. Sio Chong U & Jacky So & Deng Ding & Lihong Liu, 2016. "An efficient Fourier expansion method for the calculation of value-at-risk: Contributions of extra-ordinary risks," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(01), pages 1-27, March.
    12. Catani, P.S. & Ahlgren, N.J.C., 2017. "Combined Lagrange multiplier test for ARCH in vector autoregressive models," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 1(C), pages 62-84.
    13. Aguilar, Mike & Hill, Jonathan B., 2015. "Robust score and portmanteau tests of volatility spillover," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 184(1), pages 37-61.
    14. Jondeau, Eric, 2016. "Asymmetry in tail dependence in equity portfolios," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 351-368.
    15. Nieto, Maria Rosa & Ruiz, Esther, 2016. "Frontiers in VaR forecasting and backtesting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 475-501.
    16. Giovanni Caggiano & Efrem Castelnuovo, 2008. "Long Memory and Non-Linearities in International Inflation," "Marco Fanno" Working Papers 0076, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno".
    17. Prono, Todd, 2016. "Closed-Form Estimation of Finite-Order ARCH Models: Asymptotic Theory and Finite-Sample Performance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-083, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised Jul 2017.
    18. Iglesias, Emma M., 2015. "Value at Risk and expected shortfall of firms in the main European Union stock market indexes: A detailed analysis by economic sectors and geographical situation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-8.

    More about this item


    Hill estimator; regular variation; infinite variance; near epoch dependence; mixingale; kernel estimator; tail array sum.;

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • C4 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • C8 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:0505005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.