The effects of financial liberalization and new bank entry on market structure and competition in Turkey
Until 1980 Turkey's financial system was shaped to support state-oriented development. After the 1960s the financial system, dominated by commercial banks, became an instrument of planned industrialization. Turkey had an uncompetitive financial market and an inefficient banking system. Controlled interest rates, directed credit, high reserve requirements and other restrictions on financial intermediation, and restricted entry of new banks -plus the exit of many banks between 1960 and 1980- created a concentrated market dominated by banks owned by industrial groups with oversized branch networks and high overhead costs. Turkey since 1980 has seena trend toward liberalization of its financial market. Reforms eliminated interest rate controls, eased the entry of new financial institutions, and allowed new types of instruments. Regulatory barriers were relaxed, attracting many banks (both Turkish and foreign) into the system, and Turkey's banking system became integrated with world markets. The author examines how reform has changed the system, focusing on Turkey's commercial retail banking market. He finds that: (1) Although reform reduced concentration in the industry, leading banks are still able to coordinate their pricing decisions overtly. High profitability appears to have resulted from the banks uncompetitive pricing rather their efficiency. Deregulation and liberalization should be continued and strengthened. (2) The entry of small-scale firms alone is not enough to increase competition, so new banks should probably not be expected to alter the market structure. (3) To promote competition will require addressing barriers to both entry and mobility. The main barrier to mobility seems to be the size of the large banks, which exerts a significant negative effect on competition. (4) Interbank rivalry among the leading banks cannot be facilitated without creating new banks of a certain size with a reasonable number of branches. Breaking up public banks (which hold 30 percent of sectional assets, excluding the Agricultural Bank and three development banks) could help create 15 to 20 new banks with 40 to 50 branches. This would reduce concentration and improve mobility in retail banking. (5) Breaking up public banks before privatization would probably also improve their governance structures and efficiency. (6) Promoting the entry of nonbanks and local banks would also increase the number of institutions competing for deposits. Turkey lacks a healthy variety of credit institutions and should consider developing a mortgage market and creating institutions for housing finance.
|Date of creation:||30 Nov 1997|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991.
"Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
- Rudiger Dornbusch & Alejandro Reynoso, 1989.
"Financial Factors in Economic Development,"
NBER Working Papers
2889, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1988.
"The price-concentration relationship in banking,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1987. "The price-concentration relationship in banking," Research Papers in Banking and Financial Economics 100, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
- Smirlock, Michael, 1985. "Evidence on the (Non) Relationship between Concentration and Profitability in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 69-83, February.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1989. "Markets, Market Failures, and Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 197-203, May.
- Jeong, Kap-Young & Masson, Robert T, 1990. "Market Structure, Entry, and Performance in Korea," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 455-62, August.
- Bodenhorn, Howard, 1990. "Entry, Rivalry and Free Banking in Antebellum America," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 682-86, November.
- Rhoades, Stephen A., 1985. "Market performance and the nature of a competitive fringe," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 141-157, May.
- Smirlock, Michael & Brown, David, 1986. "Collusion, Efficiency and Pricing Behavior: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 24(1), pages 85-96, January.
- Pablo T. Spiller & Edgardo Favaro, 1984. "The Effects of Entry Regulation on Oligopolistic Interaction: The Uruguayan Banking Sector," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(2), pages 244-254, Summer.
- Gary Whalen, 1987. "Concentration and profitability in non-MSA banking markets," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q I, pages 2-9.
- Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990.
"Measurement and efficiency issues in commercial banking,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
151, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercial Banking," NBER Chapters, in: Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, pages 245-300 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heggestad, Arnold A & Rhoades, Stephen A, 1976. "Concentration and Firm Stability in Commercial Banking," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 58(4), pages 443-52, November.
- Gary Whalen, 1988. "Actual competition, potential competition, and bank profitability in rural markets," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q III, pages 14-23.
- Hannan, Timothy H, 1991. "Foundations of the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(1), pages 68-84, February.
- Peltzman, Sam, 1977.
"The Gains and Losses from Industrial Concentration,"
Journal of Law and Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(2), pages 229-63, October.
- Sam Peltzman, 1977. "The Gains and Losses From Industrial Concentration," NBER Working Papers 0163, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas D. Evanoff & Diana L. Fortier, 1987. "Reevaluation of the structure-conduct-performance paradigm in banking," Staff Memoranda 87-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1839. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.