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Determinants of diarrheal disease in Jakarta


  • Alberini, Anna
  • Eskeland, Gunnar S.
  • Krupnick, Alan
  • McGranahan, Gordon


In this report, the authors develop and estimate a model of household defensive behavior and illness. Using cross-section data from a household survey in Jakarta, they observe defensive behavior (washing hands after using the toilet) consistent with expectations: defensive effort intensifies with exposure to contamination, and with income and education. Variables associated with the cost of defensive behavior - such as interruptions in the water supply - reduce defensive behavior. The data suggest that wealthier households are no less vulnerable to illness. The water sources that supply the wealthy (the water company and private wells) are disrupted more often, interfering with their defensive behavior. There is also evidence, although weak, to support findings by van der Slice and Briscoe (1993): that pathogens within a household are less harmful to household members than are pathogens originating from other households. Given the opportunity and knowledge, individuals try to modify the effect of contamination on the incidence of diarrhea. But diarrhea's inccidence is also affected by decisions and problems outside the realm of the household, including the performance of the water company.

Suggested Citation

  • Alberini, Anna & Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Krupnick, Alan & McGranahan, Gordon, 1996. "Determinants of diarrheal disease in Jakarta," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1568, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1568

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Crane, Randall, 1994. "Water markets, market reform and the urban poor: Results from Jakarta, Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 71-83, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Deolalikar, Anil, 2000. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Disease Transmission in Cambodia," Discussion Papers dp-00-32, Resources For the Future.
    2. Jessoe, Katrina, 2013. "Improved source, improved quality? Demand for drinking water quality in rural India," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 460-475.
    3. Jyotsna Jalan & E. Somanathan & Saraswata Choudhuri, "undated". "Awareness and the Demand for Environmental Quality: Drinking Water in Urban India," Working papers 32, The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics.
    4. Perali, Federico & Polinori, Paolo & Salvioni, Cristina & Veronesi, Marcella, 2005. "A Bivariate Approach to the Determination of Effective Pollution by Farm-households," 89th Seminar, February 2-5, 2005, Parma, Italy 239273, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. M. Jahangir Alam, "undated". "Prevalence and Costs of Childhood Diarrhoea in the Slums of Dhaka," Working papers 46, The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics.
    6. Shantayanan Devarajan & F. Halsey Rogers & Lyn Squire, 2001. "World Bank Economists' Forum : Volume 1," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13871, 12-2019.
    7. Bernard, Sophie & Hotte, Louis & Winer, Stanley L., 2014. "Democracy, inequality and the environment when citizens can mitigate health consequences of pollution privately or act collectively," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 142-156.
    8. Richardson, Leslie A. & Champ, Patricia A. & Loomis, John B., 2012. "The hidden cost of wildfires: Economic valuation of health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in Southern California," Journal of Forest Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 14-35.


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