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Educational attainments in developing countries : new estimates and projections disaggregated by gender


  • Ahuja, Vinod
  • Filmer, Deon


The authors present new estimates of educational attainment in 71 developing countries for the years 1985, 1990 and 1995. They also project levels of educational attainment through the year 2020 by using the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's projections of enrollment and the International Labor Organization's projections of population by age and sex. The projections suggest interesting trends: 1) growth of stock in human capital is expected to be highest in the Middle East and North Africa and lowest in sub-Saharan Africa; 2) South Asia -- currently the least educated part of the world is expected to substantially augment its stock of human capital by the year 2020; 3) in most regions, enrollment levels are expected to remain lower for girls than boys; and 4) the gender gap in education may have risen in the past decade, this trend toward a widening of the gender gap may continue unless countries intensify their efforts to educate girls.

Suggested Citation

  • Ahuja, Vinod & Filmer, Deon, 1995. "Educational attainments in developing countries : new estimates and projections disaggregated by gender," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1489, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1489

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 1993. "International comparisons of educational attainment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 363-394, December.
    2. Kyriacou, George A., 1991. "Level and Growth Effects of Human Capital: A Cross-Country Study of the Convergence Hypothesis," Working Papers 91-26, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    3. Jimenez, Emmanuel & DEC, 1994. "Human and physical infrastructure : public investment and pricing policies in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1281, The World Bank.
    4. Romer, Paul M., 1990. "Human capital and growth: Theory and evidence," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 251-286, January.
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