IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Revenue raising taxes : general equilibrium evaluation of alternative taxation in U.S. petroleum industries


  • de Melo, Jaime
  • Stanton, Julie
  • Tarr, David


Should the United States increase taxes and tariffs in the energy sector to reduce its federal deficit? This paper uses a twelve sector general equilibrium model to estimate the fiscal effects, and the effects on welfare and employment, of : (i) a 25 percent import tax on imported crude petroleum oil; (ii) a 15 percent excise tax on petroleum products; and (iii) a combination of the two. The excise tax would be the most efficient revenue raising instrument. The 25 percent import tariff would raise US$7.3 billion, while the 15 percent excise tax would raise US$35 billion. Moreover, each dollar raised through a tariff would come at a loss of 25 cents in welfare. Each dollar raised through an excise tax would come at a loss of only one cent in welfare. Acombination of excise taxes, subsidies, and import tariffs would be the least costly way (in terms of welfare) to raise US$20 billion. The optimal tax structure would involve a tariff and a small subsidy on petroleum products to counteract the distortion induced by a tax on oil - the most important input for petroleum products.

Suggested Citation

  • de Melo, Jaime & Stanton, Julie & Tarr, David, 1989. "Revenue raising taxes : general equilibrium evaluation of alternative taxation in U.S. petroleum industries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 145, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:145

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2015. "Welfare Costs Of U.S. Quotas In Textiles, Steel And Autos," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 21, pages 451-459 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Vern Caddy, 1976. "Empirical Estimation of the Elasticity of Substitution : A Review," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-09, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    3. Harris, Richard G. & Mackinnon, James G., 1979. "Computing optimal tax equilibria," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 197-212, March.
    4. Alan S. Manne, 1976. "ETA: A Model for Energy Technology Assessment," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 7(2), pages 379-406, Autumn.
    5. Dixit, Avinash, 1985. "Tax policy in open economies," Handbook of Public Economics,in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 313-374 Elsevier.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2015. "VERs under imperfect competition and foreign direct investment: A case study of the US–Japan auto VER," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 22, pages 461-483 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..

    More about this item


    Economic Theory&Research; Oil Refining&Gas Industry; Public Sector Economics&Finance; Energy and Environment; Environmental Economics&Policies;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • F01 - International Economics - - General - - - Global Outlook
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:145. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.