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Fiscal policy in classical and Keynesian open economies

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  • Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus
  • Serven, Luis

Abstract

The authors analyze the impact of fiscal policy changes in openeconomies, using a rational expectation framework that nests two prototype economies: a neoclassical full-employment benchmark economy, with intertemporally optimizing consumers and firms and instant clearing of asset, goods, and factor markets; and a Keynesian economy, with liquidity constraints and wage rigidity, which results in transitory deviations from full employment. The model is forward-looking in that the economy's short-run equilibrium depends on current and anticipated future values of all exogenous variables, and displays hysteresis (that is, its long-run equilibrium is path-dependent). Using parameters for a representative open economy, the model is simulated to compare the dynamic effects of increases in public spending financed by taxation, debt, and money. The results illustrate four points. Both permanent and transitory disturbances cause changes in long-run output and capacity. Transitory and permanent shocks may have opposite effects on the current account. Liquidity constraints and wage rigidities tend to amplify the cyclical adjustment to fiscal policy changes. The Keynesian economy's response to fiscal shocks depends critically on the way the budget is financed: money-financed fiscal expansion causes real depreciation; non-money-financed fiscal expansion causes appreciation.

Suggested Citation

  • Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis, 1994. "Fiscal policy in classical and Keynesian open economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1299, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1299
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Barro, Robert J, 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
    2. Turnovsky, Stephen J & Sen, Partha, 1991. "Fiscal Policy, Capital Accumulation, and Debt in an Open Economy," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(1), pages 1-24, January.
    3. Francesco Giavazzi & Charles Wyplosz, 1984. "The Real Exchange Rate, the Current Account, and the Speed of Adjustment," NBER Chapters,in: Exchange Rate Theory and Practice, pages 335-356 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Kahn, Charles M, 1980. "The Solution of Linear Difference Models under Rational Expectations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(5), pages 1305-1311, July.
    5. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987. "Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987, Volume 2, pages 263-316 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Easterly, William R & Mauro, Paolo & Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus, 1995. "Money Demand and Seigniorage-Maximizing Inflation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 583-603, May.
    7. Fumio Hayashi, 1985. "Tests for Liquidity Constraints: A Critical Survey," NBER Working Papers 1720, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Francisco Gallego & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Luis Servén, 2005. "General Equilibrium Dynamics of Foreign Shocks ans Policy Changes in Chile," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Rómulo A. Chumacero & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (S (ed.), General Equilibrium Models for the Chilean Economy, edition 1, volume 9, chapter 4, pages 113-162 Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Francisco A. Gallego & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Luis Servén, 2004. "General Equilibrium Dynamics of External Shocks and Policy Changes in Chile," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 271, Central Bank of Chile.
    3. Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis, 1995. "Fiscal and monetary contraction in Chile : a rational-expectations approach," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1472, The World Bank.

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