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Are all researchers male? Gender misattributions in citations


  • Michał Krawczyk

    (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)


In this project I screen academic literature for cases of misattribution of cited author's gender. In English-language scientific publications such mistakes are found to be rare, partly because there is typically no need to attribute gender in the first place. By contrast, in master theses and doctoral dissertations (in social sciences) written in the Polish language, which typically requires gender attribution, more than 20% of female scholars are incorrectly cited as if they were men. In all my samples, mistakes involving males being cited as if they were women are dramatically less frequent, suggesting that gender misattributions are strongly shaped by the gender-science stereotype. The gender of the citing author and the field of study appear to have only limited effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Michał Krawczyk, 2016. "Are all researchers male? Gender misattributions in citations," Working Papers 2016-05, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
  • Handle: RePEc:war:wpaper:2016-05

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Krawczyk, Michał & Smyk, Magdalena, 2016. "Author׳s gender affects rating of academic articles: Evidence from an incentivized, deception-free laboratory experiment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 326-335.
    2. Abigail Powell & Tarek Hassan & Andrew Dainty & Chris Carter, 2009. "Note: Exploring gender differences in construction research: a European perspective," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(9), pages 803-807.
    3. Pleun Arensbergen & Inge van der Weijden & Peter Besselaar, 2012. "Gender differences in scientific productivity: a persisting phenomenon?," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 93(3), pages 857-868, December.
    4. Eric P. Bettinger & Bridget Terry Long, 2005. "Do Faculty Serve as Role Models? The Impact of Instructor Gender on Female Students," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 152-157, May.
    5. Howard D. White, 2001. "Authors as citers over time," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Association for Information Science & Technology, vol. 52(2), pages 87-108.
    6. Eichorn, P. & Yankauer, A., 1987. "Do authors check their references? A survey of accuracy of references in three public health journals," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 77(8), pages 1011-1012.
    7. Robert N. Broadus, 1983. "An investigation of the validity of bibliographic citations," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Association for Information Science & Technology, vol. 34(2), pages 132-135, March.
    8. Lisa Geraci & Steve Balsis & Alexander J. Busch Busch, 2015. "Gender and the h index in psychology," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 105(3), pages 2023-2034, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aleksandra Cislak & Magdalena Formanowicz & Tamar Saguy, 2018. "Bias against research on gender bias," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 115(1), pages 189-200, April.
    2. Christopher P. Scheitle & Ellory Dabbs & Riley Darragh, 2021. "Graduate Students’ Identification With Science: Differences by Demographics, Experiences, and Discipline," SAGE Open, , vol. 11(4), pages 21582440211, November.

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    More about this item


    citations; gender-science stereotype;

    JEL classification:

    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • B54 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Current Heterodox Approaches - - - Feminist Economics
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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