Turning Points in Leadership: Shipping Technology in the Portuguese and Dutch Merchant Empires
This paper focuses on the implications of organizational control on the race for economic leadership across merchant empires. Poor organizational choices reduce incentives to invest, which in turn stifle technological improvements and make leading empires lag behind new entrants. Using historical evidence on shipping technology, I show that this may have been a factor behind the loss of leadership of the Portuguese merchant empire in the late sixteenth century.
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- Gerald S. Graham, 1956. "The Ascendancy Of The Sailing Ship 1850-85," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 9(1), pages 74-88, 08.
- Reinganum, Jennifer F, 1983.
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- Rei, Claudia, 2011. "The organization of Eastern merchant empires," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 116-135, January.
- Rei, Claudia, 2011. "Incentives in Merchant Empires: Portuguese and Dutch Labor Compensation," MPRA Paper 28712, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Brezis, Elise S & Krugman, Paul R & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1993. "Leapfrogging in International Competition: A Theory of Cycles in National Technological Leadership," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1211-19, December.
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