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Assisted Reproductive Technology and Women’s Choice to Pursue Professional Careers

Author

Listed:
  • Sarah Kroeger

    () (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)

  • Giulia La Mattina

    () (Department of Economics, University of South Florida)

Abstract

We examine the impact of assisted reproductive technology on women’s choice to pursue professional careers. We hypothesize that the availability of assisted reproductive technology increases the expected benefits of a professional degree by allowing women to delay childbearing in their 20s and 30s while establishing their careers, thereby reaping greater financial benefit from human capital investment. We exploit the state and time level variation in the enactment of insurance mandates to cover infertility treatments in employer sponsored health plans, as well as cohort variation in women’s age at the time the laws are passed. These insurance mandates dramatically increase access to assisted reproductive technology. Using a triple-difference strategy, we find that a mandate to cover assisted reproductive technology does increase the probability that a woman chooses to invest in a professional degree and to work in a professional career.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah Kroeger & Giulia La Mattina, 2015. "Assisted Reproductive Technology and Women’s Choice to Pursue Professional Careers," Working Papers 0115, University of South Florida, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:usf:wpaper:0115
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Machado, Matilde P. & Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna, 2011. "Coverage of Infertility Treatment and Fertility Outcomes: Do Women Catch Up?," IZA Discussion Papers 5783, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2006. "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 133-156, Fall.
    3. Ohinata, A., 2011. "Did the US Infertility Health Insurance Mandates Affect the Timing of First Birth?," Discussion Paper 2011-102, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    4. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 2002. "The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women's Career and Marriage Decisions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(4), pages 730-770, August.
    5. Joelle Abramowitz, 2014. "Turning back the ticking clock: the effect of increased affordability of assisted reproductive technology on women’s marriage timing," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 603-633, April.
    6. Marianne Bitler & Lucie Schmidt, 2012. "Utilization of Infertility Treatments: The Effects of Insurance Mandates," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 49(1), pages 125-149, February.
    7. Kasey S. Buckles, 2013. "Infertility Insurance Mandates And Multiple Births," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 775-789, July.
    8. Schmidt, Lucie, 2007. "Effects of infertility insurance mandates on fertility," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 431-446, May.
    9. Amalia Miller, 2011. "The effects of motherhood timing on career path," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(3), pages 1071-1100, July.
    10. Martha J. Bailey, 2006. "More Power to the Pill: The Impact of Contraceptive Freedom on Women's Life Cycle Labor Supply," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(1), pages 289-320.
    11. Abadie, Alberto & Diamond, Alexis & Hainmueller, Jens, 2010. "Synthetic Control Methods for Comparative Case Studies: Estimating the Effect of California’s Tobacco Control Program," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 105(490), pages 493-505.
    12. Barton H. Hamilton & Brian McManus, 2012. "The Effects Of Insurance Mandates On Choices And Outcomes In Infertility Treatment Markets," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(8), pages 994-1016, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Occupational choice; insurance mandates; fertility; professional careers; professional degrees; assisted reproductive technology;

    JEL classification:

    • I13 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Insurance, Public and Private
    • I26 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Returns to Education
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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