Keynesian Models of Deflation and Depression Revisited: Inside Debt and Price Flexibility
This paper extends Tobin’s (1975) Keynesian analysis of deflation to include a range of additional channels through which deflation exacerbates Keynesian unemployment. The paper provides further theoretical reasons why downward price level adjustment may not solve the Keynesian problem. These arguments challenge the received wisdom that Keynes’ General Theory is a special case resting on downwardly rigid prices and nominal wages. This conventional wisdom has led many economists to recommend policies promoting downward flexibility. These policies have created an environment in which deflation is more likely, giving new relevance to Keynesian analysis of deflation.
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- James Tobin, 1975.
"Keynesian Models of Recession and Depression,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
387, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
- Barro, Robert J & Grossman, Herschel I, 1971. "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 82-93, March.
- De Long, James Bradford & Summers, Lawrence H, 1986.
"Is Increased Price Flexibility Stabilizing?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1031-1044, December.
- Tobin, James, 1981.
"Money and Finance in the Macro-Economic Process,"
Nobel Prize in Economics documents
1981-1, Nobel Prize Committee.
- Palley, Thomas I., 1999. "General disequilibrium analysis with inside debt," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 785-803.
- Caskey, John & Fazzari, Steven M, 1987. "Aggregate Demand Contractions with Nominal Debt Commitments: Is Wage Flexibility Stabilizing?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 25(4), pages 583-597, October.
- William C. Brainard & James Tobin, 1968. "Pitfalls in Financial Model-Building," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 244, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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