English Deficiency and the Native-Immigrant Wage Gap
We focus on the effect of English deficiency on the native-immigrant wage gap for employees in the UK using the first wave of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey (Understanding Society). We show that the wage gap is robust to controls for age, region of residence, educational attainment and ethnicity, particularly for men. However, English as Additional Language (EAL) is capable of explaining virtually all the remaining wage gap between natives and immigrants. Using the interaction of language of country of birth and age-at-arrival as instrument, we find strong evidence of a causal effect of EAL on the native-immigrant wage gap.
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- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2009.
"Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants,"
CReAM Discussion Paper Series
0913, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
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- Christian Dustmann & Francesca Fabbri, 2003.
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- Dustmann, Christian, 1994.
"Speaking Fluency, Writing Fluency and Earnings of Migrants,"
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- Chiswick, Barry R, 1991. "Speaking, Reading, and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 9(2), pages 149-70, April.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2004. "Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 481-496, May.
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