Retirement Incomes, Labour Supply and Co-residency Decisions of Older Immigrants in Canada: 1991-2006
The incomes, hours of work and co-residency behavior of older immigrants in Canada are analyzed using data from the confidential master files of the Canadian Census for the years 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006. Older immigrants in Canada have lower incomes than the Canadian-born of the same age range and this difference is concentrated in the immigrants who arrived older than age 50. However, there is also evidence that the effects of the lower incomes on the welfare of these immigrants are mitigated to a certain extent through co-residency, presumably with their younger relatives already resident in Canada. Immigrants reside with, on average, more family members than do the Canadian born. A clear pattern is present of immigrant groups with relatively low average incomes being the ones living in larger economic families. Immigrants who arrive at younger ages (25-49) are more likely to be employed and if they are employed, they tend to work longer hours than their Canadian born counterparts. For immigrants who arrived after age 50, their employment decisions do not differ greatly from their Canadian born counterparts; however, if they work, their hours of work tend to be higher. Immigrants have relatively less income from private pensions compared with the Canadian born. Immigrants from non-traditional source countries have low levels of CPP/QPP income relative to immigrants from traditional source countries or the Canadian born. In terms of OAS/GIS income, immigrant men who arrived at age 60 or older have in the order of 50% lower incidence of receiving pension income than do immigrants who arrived at younger ages. In contrast, for immigrant men who arrived age 25-49, we do not see large differences in their incidence or level of income received from OAS/GIS relative to otherwise similar Canadian born men.
|Date of creation:||29 Apr 2013|
|Date of revision:||29 Apr 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.clsrn.econ.ubc.ca/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael R. Veall, 2007.
"Which Canadian Seniors Are Below the Low-Income Measure?,"
Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population Research Reports
414, McMaster University.
- Michael R. Veall, 2007. "Which Canadian Seniors Are Below the Low-Income Measure?," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 186, McMaster University.
- Kevin Milligan, 2007.
"The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada,"
Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers
170, McMaster University.
- David A. Green & Christopher Worswick, 2004.
"Immigrant earnings profiles in the presence of human capital investment: measuring cohort and macro effects,"
IFS Working Papers
W04/13, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Green, David A. & Worswick, Christopher, 2012. "Immigrant earnings profiles in the presence of human capital investment: Measuring cohort and macro effects," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 241-259.
- James Ted McDonald & Christopher Worswick, 1998. "The Earnings of immigrant men in Canada: Job tenure, cohort, and macroeconomic conditions," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 465-482, April.
- Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
- Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne & Fan, Elliot, 2009. "Public Policy and the Economic Wellbeing of Elderly Immigrants," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-69, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 28 Dec 2009.
- Patrik Marier & Suzanne Skinner, 2008. "The Impact of Gender and Immigration on Pension Outcomes in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(s1), pages 59-78, November.
- Finnie, Ross & Beach, Charles M., 2004.
"A Longitudinal Analysis of Earnings Change in Canada,"
Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series
2004227e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Charles Beach & Ross Finnie, 2004. "A longitudinal analysis of earnings change in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 37(1), pages 219-240, February.
- David A. Green & James Townsend, 2009.
"Understanding the wage patterns of Canadian less skilled workers: the role of implicit contracts,"
IFS Working Papers
W09/22, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- David A. Green & James Townsend, 2010. "Understanding the wage patterns of Canadian less skilled workers: the role of implicit contracts," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 373-403, February.
- Worswick, C., 1996. "Immigrant Families in Canadian labour Market," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 504, The University of Melbourne.
- Christopher Worswick, 1996. "Immigrant Families in the Canadian Labour Market," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 22(4), pages 378-396, December.
- Paul Beaudry & David A. Green, 2000.
"Cohort patterns in Canadian earnings: assessing the role of skill premia in inequality trends,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(4), pages 907-936, November.
- Paul Beaudry & David Green, 1997. "Cohort Patterns in Canadian Earnings: Assessing the Role of Skill Premia in Inequality Trends," NBER Working Papers 6132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher Worswick, 1999. "Credit Constraints and the Labour Supply of Immigrant Families in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(1), pages 152-170, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ubc:clssrn:clsrn_admin-2013-23. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Vivian Tran)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.