Changes in Socio-Demographic Situation and Social Convergence
The European Union Candidate Countries, including Estonia, lag behind the European Union (EU) level of economic and social development. By convergence we usually mean harmonisation of the level of incomes across countries. Convergence also means harmonisation of particular economic indicators, equalisation. Social convergence is discussed in the latter meaning. According to the economic theory of convergence, the economic development level of less developed countries should approach the level of more advanced countries with the same economic resources or fundamentals. This paper discusses convergence of social protection expenditure, analyses trends in the economic and socio-demographic situation and respective social policy measures that influence the convergence process in EU countries. Estimates of social protection expenditure in EU countries indicate faster development of countries with lower level of social protection in recent years. Many reforms accomplished there have helped to raise the social protection level in less developed countries. A comparison of social protection expenditure and evaluation of changes there should also characterise the social convergence process between EU countries. Analyses of social trends in EU countries enable to evaluate preconditions that would help the candidate countries, including Estonia, to achieve social convergence with accession to the EU.
|Date of creation:||2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published in Working Papers in Economics.School of Economics and Business Administration,Tallinn University of Technology (TUTWPE), Pages 171-184|
|Note:||We wish to thank Lisa Wilder of the Albright College for her useful comments and Reet Maldre for the assistance. This paper has been prepared with the support of the project financed by the Estonian Ministry of Education (0341765s01) and the Estonian SF grant 5083.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +(372)620 3535
Fax: +(372)620 3946
Web page: http://majandus.ttu.ee
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1994.
"Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence,"
Economics Working Papers
104, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1994. "Regional Cohesion: Evidence and Theories of Regional Growth and Convergence," CEPR Discussion Papers 1075, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Pritchett, Lant, 1995.
"Divergence, big time,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1522, The World Bank.
- Baldwin, Richard, 1990.
"Measurable Dynamic Gains from Trade,"
Working Paper Series
270, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1993.
"Endogenous, Innovation in the Theory of Growth,"
165, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- John Nixon, . "Convergence Analysis of Health Care Expenditure in the EU Countries Using Two Approaches," Discussion Papers 99/3, Department of Economics, University of York.
- Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998.
"The New Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
6422, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," Working Papers 98-01-012, Santa Fe Institute.
- Durlauf,S.N. & Quah,D.T., 1998. "The new empirics of economic growth," Working papers 3, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- S Durlauf & Danny Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0384, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991.
"Convergence Across States and Regions,"
629, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
- Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-51, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ttu:wpaper:114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Urve Venesaar)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.