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Evaluating Voluntary Measures with Spillovers: The Case of Coal Combustion Products Partnership

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  • Lange, Ian

Abstract

Traditionally, voluntary measures have been evaluated using the same framework regardless of their structure. The framework assumes that the measure provides partners with a treatment (information, research support, etc) that will not be transferred to nonpartners. In this framework, a voluntary measure is said to be worthwhile if there are significant differences between the behavior of partners and non-partners, correcting for the potential endogeneity of becoming a partner. However, voluntary measures take many different forms; some which are expected to have information transfers (spillovers) to non-partners. The Coal Combustion Products Partnership (C2P2) is a voluntary program to increase the re-use of coal combustion products (CCP) using a structure that is likely to provide spillovers to non-partners. This paper evaluates C2P2 and tests whether program spillovers are affecting non-partners' behavior. Results suggest that the traditional interpretation would find this program unsuccessful, however when spillovers are considered, evidence points to a successful program.

Suggested Citation

  • Lange, Ian, 2008. "Evaluating Voluntary Measures with Spillovers: The Case of Coal Combustion Products Partnership," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2008-24, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:stl:stledp:2008-24
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/550
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Na Li Dawson & Kathleen Segerson, 2008. "Voluntary Agreements with Industries: Participation Incentives with Industry-Wide Targets," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(1), pages 97-114.
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    4. Khanna, Madhu & Damon, Lisa A., 1999. "EPA's Voluntary 33/50 Program: Impact on Toxic Releases and Economic Performance of Firms," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 1-25, January.
    5. Brouhle, Keith & Griffiths, Charles & Wolverton, Ann, 2009. "Evaluating the role of EPA policy levers: An examination of a voluntary program and regulatory threat in the metal-finishing industry," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 166-181, March.
    6. Gamper-Rabindran, Shanti, 2006. "Did the EPA's voluntary industrial toxics program reduce emissions? A GIS analysis of distributional impacts and by-media analysis of substitution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 391-410, July.
    7. Finus, Michael & Tjotta, Sigve, 2003. "The Oslo Protocol on sulfur reduction: the great leap forward?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2031-2048, September.
    8. Bratberg, Espen & Tjotta, Sigve & Oines, Torgeir, 2005. "Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 583-597, November.
    9. Seema Arora & Timothy N. Cason, 1996. "Why Do Firms Volunteer to Exceed Environmental Regulations? Understanding Participation in EPA's 33/50 Program," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 72(4), pages 413-432.
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    Keywords

    Voluntary environmental measures; coal fly ash; spillovers;

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