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Changes in the Diversification of Canadian Manufacturing Firms and Plants (1973-1997): A Move to Specialization

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  • Baldwin, John R.
  • Beckstead, Desmond
  • Caves, Richard

Abstract

This paper studies changes in diversification of firms and plants since the early 1970s in the Canadian manufacturing sector. It finds that there has been a general increase in specialization of both firms and plants. Firms have been continuously reducing the span of industries in which they operate, particularly when the industries are unrelated. Commodity specialization has also occurred at the plant level; however, in contrast to industry specialization, the pace of commodity specialization increased emerged late in the period, around the time of implementation of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Plant specialization increased most in those plants that moved most strongly into export markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Baldwin, John R. & Beckstead, Desmond & Caves, Richard, 2002. "Changes in the Diversification of Canadian Manufacturing Firms and Plants (1973-1997): A Move to Specialization," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002179e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  • Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2002179e
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    2. Jacquemin, Alexis P & Berry, Charles H, 1979. "Entropy Measure of Diversification and Corporate Growth," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 359-369, June.
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    5. Aw, Bee-Yan & Batra, Geeta, 1998. "Firm size and the pattern of diversification," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 313-331, May.
    6. Baldwin, John R. & Beckstead, Desmond & Gellatly, Guy & Peters, Alice & Yates, Janice, 2000. "Patterns of Corporate Diversification in Canada: An Empirical Analysis," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000150e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    7. MacDonald, James M, 1985. "R and D and the Directions of Diversification," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 583-590, November.
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    10. Richard E. Caves, 1987. "Effects of mergers and acquisitions on the economy: an industrial organization perspective," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 31, pages 149-172.
    11. Lemelin, Andre, 1982. "Relatedness in the Patterns of Interindustry Diversification," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(4), pages 646-657, November.
    12. Clarke, R & Davies, S W, 1983. "Aggregate Concentration, Market Concentration and Diversification," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(369), pages 182-192, March.
    13. Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul, 1998. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521633574, December.
      • Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1995. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521465618, March.
    14. Markusen, James R. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Hunter, Linda, 1995. "Trade liberalization in a multinational-dominated industry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1-2), pages 95-117, February.
    15. Lecraw, Donald J, 1984. "Diversification Strategy and Performance," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(2), pages 179-198, December.
    16. George J. Stigler, 1951. "The Division of Labor is Limited by the Extent of the Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59, pages 185-185.
    17. Jovanovic, B., 1993. "The Diversification of Production," Working Papers 93-11, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Baldwin, John R. & Brown, W. Mark & Gu, Wulong, 2008. "Geographic Market Access and the Effects of Trade on Length of Production Run, Product Diversity and Plant Scale of Canadian Manufacturing Plants, 1974 to 1999," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2008052e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    2. Baldwin, John R. & Gu, Wulong, 2006. "The Impact of Trade on Plant Scale, Production-Run Length and Diversification," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2006038e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    3. Baldwin, John R. & Caves, Richard & Gu, Wulong, 2005. "Responses to Trade Liberalization: Changes in Product Diversification in Foreign- and Domestic-controlled Plants," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005031e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    4. Warren, Paul, 2005. "Profitability of Canadian- Versus U.S.-controlled Enterprises," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005030e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    5. Brown, W. Mark, 2003. "Overcoming Distance, Overcoming Borders: Comparing North American Regional Trade," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2003008e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    6. Lileeva, Alla, 2008. "Trade Liberalization and Productivity Dynamics: Evidence from Canada," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2008051e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    7. John Baldwin & Wulong Gu, 2009. "The Impact of Trade on Plant Scale, Production-Run Length and Diversification," NBER Chapters,in: Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data, pages 557-592 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Gu, Wulong & Sawchuk, Gary, 2006. "How Are Canadian Regions Adjusting to a Larger and More Integrated North American Market?," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2006039e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    9. Baldwin, John R. & Beckstead, Desmond & Gellatly, Guy, 2005. "Canada's Investments in Science and Innovation: Is the Existing Concept of Research and Development Sufficient?," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005032e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    10. Alla Lileeva, 2008. "Trade liberalization and productivity dynamics: evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(2), pages 360-390, May.
    11. Bronwyn Hall & Francesca Lotti & Jacques Mairesse, 2009. "Innovation and productivity in SMEs: empirical evidence for Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 13-33, June.
    12. Baldwin, John R. & Lileeva, Alla, 2008. "Adapting to Import Competition: Effects of Low-wage Trade on Commodity Mix in Canadian Manufacturing Plants," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2008054e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    13. John R. Baldwin & Richard E. Caves & Wulong Gu, 2005. "Responses to Trade Liberalization: Changes in Product Diversification in Foreign- and Domestic-Controlled Plants," Chapters,in: Governance, Multinationals and Growth, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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