IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/stc/stcp3e/1997107e.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Importance of Research and Development for Innovation in Small and Large Canadian Manufacturing Firms

Author

Listed:
  • Baldwin, John R.

Abstract

The debate over the appropriate function of government policy for research and development (R&D) subsidies brings into focus the different roles that are played by large and small firms in the innovation process. Small firms, it is often claimed, have different tendencies to use R&D facilities than large firms and, therefore, require the development of special programs that are directed at this sector. This paper examines the differences in the innovation profiles of small and large firms, and how R&D intensity and efficacy varies across different size classes. It investigates the contribution that R&D makes to success in the small and medium-sized population and the types of policies that small firms feel are the most appropriate to reduce the impediments to innovation that they face. The paper finds a number of differences between large and small firms in the tendency to innovate and to use R&D facilities. Small firms can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of firms that resemble large firms in that they perform R&D and generate new products and processes primarily through their own efforts. The second are those who rely upon customers and suppliers for their sources of ideas for innovation. Large firms, by way of contrast, tend to rely more heavily on R&D. While they too rely on networks for ideas, their networks focus more heavily on relationships with other firms that belong to the same firm. Most of the differences between small and large firms are explained by the fact that firms of different sizes specialize in different parts of the production process. Firms of different sizes serve different niches; they each have their own advantages. Small firms are more flexible but can suffer from cost disadvantages due to scale. They overcome their disadvantages by networking with their customers and by showing the same flexibility in their R&D process that they exhibit elsewhere. They rely less on dedicated R&D facilities and more on the flexible exploitation of R&D as opportunities arise. They also network with customers in order to adopt their suggestions for new innovations.

Suggested Citation

  • Baldwin, John R., 1997. "The Importance of Research and Development for Innovation in Small and Large Canadian Manufacturing Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1997107e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  • Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:1997107e
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/olc-cel/olc.action?ObjId=11F0019M1997107&ObjType=46&lang=en&limit=0
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Soete, Luc L. G., 1979. "Firm size and inventive activity : The evidence reconsidered," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 319-340, October.
    2. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
    3. David J. Teece, 2008. "Technology Transfer By Multinational Firms: The Resource Cost Of Transferring Technological Know-How," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Transfer And Licensing Of Know-How And Intellectual Property Understanding the Multinational Enterprise in the Modern World, chapter 1, pages 1-22 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Cohen, Wesley M. & Levin, Richard C., 1989. "Empirical studies of innovation and market structure," Handbook of Industrial Organization,in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 18, pages 1059-1107 Elsevier.
    5. Nathan ROSENBERG, 2009. "Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies On Science And The Innovation Process Selected Works of Nathan Rosenberg, chapter 11, pages 225-234 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Baldwin, John & Picot, Garnett, 1995. "Employment Generation by Small Producers in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 317-331, August.
    7. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
    8. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "A Reprise of Size and R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 925-951, July.
    9. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1987. "Innovation, Market Structure, and Firm Size," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 567-574, November.
    10. Kleinknecht, Alfred, 1987. "Measuring R&D in Small Firms: How Much Are We Missing?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 253-256, December.
    11. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1992. "The Tradeoff between Firm Size and Diversity in the Pursuit of Technological Progress," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 1-14, March.
    12. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "Firm Size and the Nature of Innovation within Industries: The Case of Process and Product R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 232-243, May.
    13. Baldwin, John R. & Diverty, Brent & Sabourin, David, 1995. "Technology Use and Industrial Transformation: Empirical Perspectives," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995075e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fu, Xiaolan & Yang, Qing Gong, 2009. "Exploring the cross-country gap in patenting: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1203-1213, September.
    2. Baldwin, John R. & Peters, Alice, 2001. "Innovation and Connectivity: The Nature of Market Linkages and Innovation Networks in Canadian Manufacturing Industries," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2001165e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    3. María Rochina-Barrachina & Juan Mañez & Juan Sanchis-Llopis, 2010. "Process innovations and firm productivity growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 147-166, February.
    4. Crespi, Gustavo & Tacsir, Ezequiel, 2011. "Effects of innovation on employment in Latin America," MPRA Paper 35429, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Gellatly, Guy & Peters, Valerie, 2000. "Understanding the Innovation Process: Innovation in Dynamic Service Industries," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000127e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    6. Baldwin, John R. & Sabourin, David, 1999. "Innovative Activity in Canadian Food Processing Establishments: the Importance of Engineering Practices," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1999101e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    7. Baldwin, John R. & Gellatly, Guy, 1998. "Are There High-tech Industries or Only High-tech Firms? Evidence from New Technology-based Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1998120e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    8. Baldwin, John R. & Gaudreault, Valerie & Gellatly, Guy, 2002. "Financing Innovation in New Small Firms: New Evidence from Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002190e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    9. Baldwin, John R. & Beckstead, Desmond & Gellatly, Guy, 2005. "Canada's Investments in Science and Innovation: Is the Existing Concept of Research and Development Sufficient?," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005032e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    10. Ahmed Abdel-Maksoud & Wagdy Abdallah & Mayada Youssef, 2012. "An empirical study of the influence of intensity of competition on the deployment of contemporary management accounting practices and managerial techniques in Egyptian firms," Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 84-97, February.
    11. Baldwin, John R. & Yates, Janice, 1999. "Innovation, Training and Success," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1999137e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    12. Baldwin, John R. & Hanel, Peter, 2000. "Multinationals and the Canadian Innovation Process," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000151e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    13. Baldwin, John R., 1999. "A Portrait of Entrants and Exits," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1999121e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    14. Baldwin, John R. & Hanel, Peter & Sabourin, David, 2000. "Determinants of Innovative Activity in Canadian Manufacturing Firms: The Role of Intellectual Property Rights," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000122e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    15. Someshwar Rao & Jianmin Tang, 2004. "Competitiveness Challenges Facing Canadian Industries," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 30(4), pages 365-380, December.
    16. van Moorsel, Daryl & Cranfield, John A.L. & Sparling, David, 2005. "Factors Affecting Biotechnology Innovation in Canada: Analysis of the 2001 Biotechnology Use and Development Survey," Working Papers 34121, University of Guelph, Department of Food, Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    17. Baldwin, John R. & Rama, Ed & Sabourin, David, 1999. "Growth of Advanced Technology Use in Canadian Manufacturing During the 1990's," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1999105e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    18. Shelagh A. Heffernan & Xiaolan Fu & Xiaoqing (Maggie) Fu, 2013. "Financial innovation in the UK," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(24), pages 3400-3411, August.
    19. Juan A. Mañez & María E. Rochina-Barrachina & Amparo Sanchis & Juan A. Sanchis, 2011. "On The Role Of Process Innovations On Smes Productivity Growth?," Working Papers 1125, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:1997107e. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Brown). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/stagvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.