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Importance de la recherche et du developpement sur l'aptitude a innover des petites et des grandes entreprises manufacturieres canadiennes

Listed author(s):
  • Baldwin, John R.

Pour eclairer le debat sur la fonction que doit remplir la politique gouvernementale de financement de la recherche et developpment (R et D), il faut tenir compte des roles distincts que jouent les petites et les grandes entreprises dans le processus d'innovation. On pretend souvent que les petites entreprises ont tendance a utiliser les installations de R et D autrement que les grandes, donc qu'il faut mettre en place des programmes speciaux a l'intention de ce secteur. Dans le present document, on compare les profils d'innovation des petites et des grandes entreprises, et on examine la variation de l'intensite et de l'efficacite des activites de R et D selon la taille de l'entreprise. On determine la contribution de la R et D au succes des petites et des moyennes entreprises et le genre de politique qui, selon celles-ci, permet le mieux de reduire les obstacles a l'innovation auxquels elles se heurtent. La tendance a innover et a utiliser les installations de R et D des grandes et des petites entreprises se distingue de plusieurs facons. On peut repartir les petites entreprises en deux groupes. Le premier comprend celles qui ressemblent aux grandes entreprises en ce sens qu'elles effectuent des travaux de R et D et que leurs nouveaux produits et procedes sont principalement le fruit de leurs propres efforts. Le deuxieme comprend les petites entreprises qui puisent leurs idees nouvelles aupres de leurs clients et de leurs fournisseurs. Les grandes entreprises, quant a elles, ont tendance a dependre davantage de la R et D. Elles s'appuient elles aussi sur des reseaux pour trouver de nouvelles idees, mais ces reseaux sont davantage axes sur les liens avec des entreprises apparentees. Les ecarts entre les tendances a innover et a utiliser les installations de R et D des grandes et des petites entreprises tiennent, en grande partie, au fait que les entreprises se specialisent dans divers stades du processus de production selon leur taille. Les entreprises desservent des creneaux differents en fonction des avantages particuliers qu'offrent leur taille. Les petites entreprises sont plus souples, mais sont desavantagees au chapitre des couts, car elles ne beneficient pas des economies d'echelle dont profitent les grandes entreprises. Elles surmontent cet inconvenient en nouant des liens avec les entreprises clientes et en faisant preuve d'autant de souplesse dans le domaine de la R et D que dans d'autres. Elles dependent moins d'installations de R et D specialisees et ont davantage tendance a exploiter la R et D quand l'occasion s'en presente. Elles s'appuient aussi sur les idees de leurs clients en matiere d'innovation.

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File URL: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/olc-cel/olc.action?ObjId=11F0019M1997107&ObjType=46&lang=fr&limit=0
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Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche with number 1997107f.

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Date of creation: 17 Sep 1997
Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3f:1997107f
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  1. Soete, Luc L. G., 1979. "Firm size and inventive activity : The evidence reconsidered," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 319-340, October.
  2. Baldwin, John & Picot, Garnett, 1995. "Employment Generation by Small Producers in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 317-331, August.
  3. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
  4. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "A Reprise of Size and R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 925-951, July.
  5. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1987. "Innovation, Market Structure, and Firm Size," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 567-574, November.
  6. Kleinknecht, Alfred, 1987. "Measuring R&D in Small Firms: How Much Are We Missing?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 253-256, December.
  7. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1992. "The Tradeoff between Firm Size and Diversity in the Pursuit of Technological Progress," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 1-14, March.
  8. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
  9. Nathan ROSENBERG, 2009. "Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies On Science And The Innovation Process Selected Works of Nathan Rosenberg, chapter 11, pages 225-234 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
  10. Baldwin, John R. & Diverty, Brent & Sabourin, David, 1995. "Technology Use and Industrial Transformation: Empirical Perspectives," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995075e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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