Analysis of Firm Compliance with Multiple Environmental Regulations
When a firm is regulated under multiple environmental programs, its compliance behavior under these programs can be complementary or substituting—regulations of one program either increase or decrease firm compliance with other programs. This paper examines the existence and the nature of such cross program effects. A panel data model with panel corrected standard error (PCSE) is estimated using data on facilities regulated under both the air program (Clean Air Act, CAA) and the hazardous waste program (Reservation and Conservation Recovery Act, RCRA). Results show evidence of negative cross program effects of RCRA regulations on facility compliance with CAA. Increases in RCRA inspections and RCRA penalties as well as the threat of an RCRA inspection result in facilities complying less with CAA regulations. Furthermore, facilities that are regulated under other programs such as Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Clean Water Act (CWA) show less compliance than other facilities. Positive withinprogram effects are found, with the threat of a CAA inspection and actual CAA penalty imposing positive effects on CAA compliance. In addition, unemployment rates are negatively related to compliance while population density is positively related to compliance.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P O Box 2118, Huntsville, TX 77341-2118|
Web page: http://www.shsu.edu/~eco_www/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Laplante, Benoit & Rilstone, Paul, 1996. "Environmental Inspections and Emissions of the Pulp and Paper Industry in Quebec," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 19-36, July.
- Wayne B. Gray & Ronald J. Shadbegian, 2007. "The Environmental Performance Of Polluting Plants: A Spatial Analysis," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 63-84.
- Dietrich Earnhart, 2004. "The Effects of Community Characteristics on Polluter Compliance Levels," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 80(3), pages 408-432.
- Kaplow, Louis & Shavell, Steven, 1994.
"Optimal Law Enforcement with Self-Reporting of Behavior,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 583-606, June.
- Louis Kaplow & Steven Shavell, 1991. "Optimal Law Enforcement with Self-Reporting of Behavior," NBER Working Papers 3822, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harford, Jon D., 1991. "Measurement error and state-dependent pollution control enforcement," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 67-81, July.
- Shimshack, Jay P. & Ward, Michael B., 2005.
"Regulator reputation, enforcement, and environmental compliance,"
25994, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Shimshack, Jay P. & Ward, Michael B., 2005. "Regulator reputation, enforcement, and environmental compliance," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 519-540, November.
- Wayne B. Gray & Jay P. Shimshack, 2011. "The Effectiveness of Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement: A Review of the Empirical Evidence," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 3-24, Winter.
- Dietrich Earnhart, 2004. "Panel Data Analysis of Regulatory Factors Shaping Environmental Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 391-401, February.
- Gamper-Rabindran, Shanti, 2006. "Did the EPA's voluntary industrial toxics program reduce emissions? A GIS analysis of distributional impacts and by-media analysis of substitution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 391-410, July.
- Decker, Christopher S. & Pope, Christopher R., 2005. "Adherence to environmental law: the strategic complementarities of compliance decisions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-5), pages 641-661, September.
- Hilary Sigman, 1996. "Cross-Media Pollution: Responses to Restrictions on Chlorinated Solvent Releases," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 72(3), pages 298-312.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:shs:wpaper:1207. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Raschke)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.