Cross-Media Pollution: Responses to Restrictions on Chlorinated Solvent Releases
Pollution control in one environmental medium may alter polluters' releases into other media. This paper examines cross-media responses to public policies that restrict toxic air emissions and that increase waste management costs. The EPA's 1987-90 Toxic Release Inventories are used to study the policies' effects on air emissions and waste generation of chlorinated solvents. The results suggest that constraints on air emissions reduce waste generation, perhaps because facilities rely less on these chemicals. Increases in hazardous waste management costs increase air emissions, however, suggesting that facilities substitute between releases into different environmental media.