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Time as an Ingredient in Meal Production and Consumption


  • Woodward, Jonathan

    () (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)


Economic factors such as wages may have different influences on meal production and consumption times. Previous research has typically investigated only production or consumption time, and has produced mixed results. After developing a stylized model that illustrates how higher wages may reduce meal production time but have ambiguous effects on meal consumption time, I examine these relationships using time diary information from the ATUS supplemented with wage information from the CPS. Using standard and censored regression models, I find that for meal production time, women experience a negative effect from wages on weekdays, as expected, and no effect on weekends. However, men show no weekday effect and a surprising positive effect of wages on weekends, suggesting that men with a high value of weekday time may substitute weekend meal production time for weekday time. Higher wages are associated with more meal consumption time for both men and women on weekdays and weekends, indicating that consumption time is a normal good.

Suggested Citation

  • Woodward, Jonathan, 2011. "Time as an Ingredient in Meal Production and Consumption," UNCG Economics Working Papers 11-12, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2011_012

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mark Aguiar & Erik Hurst, 2005. "Consumption versus Expenditure," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(5), pages 919-948, October.
    2. Stewart, Jay, 2013. "Tobit or not Tobit?," Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, IOS Press, issue 3, pages 263-290.
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    More about this item


    Time use; Meal time; Meal production; Meal consumption; Wage imputation;

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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