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Macroeconomic Impacts of Foreign Exchange Reserve Accumulation: Theory and International Evidence

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  • Fukuda, Shin-ichi

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

  • Kon, Yoshifumi

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

Abstract

Recently, a dramatic accumulation in foreign exchange reserves has been widely observed in developing countries. This paper explores the possible long-run impacts of this trend on macroeconomic variables in developing countries. We analyze a simple open economy model where increased foreign exchange reserves reduce the costs of liquidity risk. Given the amount of foreign exchange reserves, utility-maximizing representative agents decide consumption, capital stock, and labor input, as well as the amounts of liquid and illiquid external debt. The equilibrium values of these variables depend on the amount of foreign exchange reserves. A rise in foreign exchange reserves increases both liquid and total debt, while shortening debt maturity. To the extent that interest rates of foreign exchange reserves are low, an increase in foreign reserves also leads to a permanent decline in consumption. However, when the tradable sector is capital intensive, the increase may enhance investment and economic growth. We provide empirical support for our theoretical analysis using panel data from the Penn World Table. The cross-country evidence shows that an increase in foreign exchange reserves raises external debt outstanding and shortens debt maturity. The results also imply that increased foreign exchange reserves may lead to a decline in consumption, but can also enhance investment and economic growth. The positive impact on economic growth, however, disappears when we control the impact through investment.

Suggested Citation

  • Fukuda, Shin-ichi & Kon, Yoshifumi, 2010. "Macroeconomic Impacts of Foreign Exchange Reserve Accumulation: Theory and International Evidence," ADBI Working Papers 197, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0197
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    3. Shin-ichi Fukuda & Yoshifumi Kon, 2012. "Macroeconomic Impacts of Foreign Exchange Reserve Accumulation: Theory and International Evidence," Chapters, in: Masahiro Kawai & Peter J. Morgan & Shinji Takagi (ed.), Monetary and Currency Policy Management in Asia, chapter 5, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Uz Akdogan, Idil, 2020. "Understanding the dynamics of foreign reserve management: The central bank intervention policy and the exchange rate fundamentals," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 41-55.
    6. Yun Jung Kim & Jing Zhang, 2023. "International Capital Flows: Private Versus Public Flows In Developing And Developed Countries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 64(1), pages 225-260, February.
    7. Rachna Agrawal & Ashima Verma, 2023. "Investigating the efficiency of foreign exchange reserves using stochastic frontier analysis: Evidence across the globe," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(2), pages 1376-1390, April.
    8. Mahraddika, Wishnu, 2019. "Does international reserve accumulation crowd out domestic private investment?," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 39-50.
    9. Jeanne Amar & Christelle Lecourt & Valerie Kinon, 2018. "Is the emergence of new sovereign wealth funds a fashion phenomenon?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 154(4), pages 835-873, November.
    10. Masahiro Kawai & Shinji Takagi, 2012. "A Proposal for Exchange Rate Policy Coordination in East Asia," Chapters, in: Masahiro Kawai & Peter J. Morgan & Shinji Takagi (ed.), Monetary and Currency Policy Management in Asia, chapter 9, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Masahiro Kawai & Peter J. Morgan & Shinji Takagi (ed.), 2012. "Monetary and Currency Policy Management in Asia," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14414.
    12. Lau, Evan & Moll de Alba, Jaime & Liew, Kim-Hing, 2022. "Debt and economic growth in Asian developing countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 599-612.
    13. Jong-Eun Lee, 2016. "Exchange Rate Dynamics with Foreign Reserves: Revisiting the Dornbusch Overshooting Model," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 406-414, May.
    14. Pina, Gonçalo, 2017. "International reserves and global interest rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 371-385.
    15. Min Zhang & Adam W. Kolkiewicz & Tony S. Wirjanto & Xindan Li, 2015. "The impacts of financial crisis on sovereign credit risk analysis in Asia and Europe," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(03), pages 1-57.
    16. Wishnu Mahraddika, 2019. "Does international reserve accumulation crowd out domestic private investment?," Departmental Working Papers 2019-02, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    17. Kwon, Austin, 2017. "Trends in the Accumulation of Net Foreign Reserves since World War II," Studies in Applied Economics 94, The Johns Hopkins Institute for Applied Economics, Global Health, and the Study of Business Enterprise.
    18. Lee, Sang Seok & Luk, Paul, 2018. "The Asian Financial Crisis and international reserve accumulation: A robust control approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 284-309.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    accumulation foreign exchange reserves; macroeconomic variables; developing countries;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems

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