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Science and technology in today’s economy. the fourth stage in the organisation of production (Science et technologie dans l’economie contemporaine. Le quatreme moment de l’organisation de la production)

  • Dimitri Uzunidis


    (labrii, ULCO)

The historical context determines for most part the order of priority of the scientific phenomena to study, the techniques (methods and tools) to use, as well as the social use which will be made of the results. Classical Economists highlighted three stages in the transformation of the production forces of capitalism: meetings of workers isolated under the same management, followed by the division of the work and the differentiation of the tasks, then by the clear separation between intellectual and manual work. This paper presents the fourth stage in the productive organisation: an organisation based on the spatial de-concentration of the achievement of this production and on decisional, financial and informational centralisation that the applications of contemporary science allow. Concerning the organisation of labour, this fourth moment is characterised by the combination in the same group of staff paid by the company itself and a salaried staff paid by other organisations, but appropriated by the company which makes use of the said group. This fourth stage is the one of the unprecedented marketability of science, organised as a network by enterprises and states in a clear technological aim. Le contexte historique conditionne pour une grande partie l’ordre des priorités sur le plan scientifique et technique ainsi que sur le plan de l’application des résultats de la recherche. Les économistes classiques ont mis en évidence trois moments historiques durant lesquels les forces de production du capitalisme se sont transformées : le regroupement des travailleurs isolés sous le même commandement a été suivi par la division du travail et la différenciation des tâches, puis par la séparation claire du travail intellectuel du travail manuel. Ce document présente le quatrième moment de l’organisation productive : une organisation fondée sur la déconcentration spatiale de la réalisation de la production et sur la centralisation décisionnelle, financière et informationnelle permises par les avancées scientifiques et techniques actuelles. Concernant l’organisation du travail, ce quatrième moment est caractérisé par la combinaison dans un même collectif de salariés appartenant à une entreprise et d’autres qui appartiennent à d’autres entreprises mais dont le travail est réalisé pour le compte de la première entreprise. Le quatrième moment est lié à une marchéisation sans précédent de la science, organisée en réseau par les entreprises et les Etats dans un but clairement technologique.

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Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 125.

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Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Avril 2006
Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:125
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  1. Dominique Foray, 2006. "The Economics of Knowledge," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262562235, June.
  2. Robinson, Joan, 1977. "What Are the Questions?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 1318-39, December.
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  4. Barro, R.J., 1988. "Government Spending In A Simple Model Of Endogenous Growth," RCER Working Papers 130, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  5. Blandine Laperche, 2001. "Potentiel d'innovation des grandes entreprises et État, argumentation évolutionniste sur l'appropriation des informations scientifiques et techniques," Innovations, De Boeck Université, vol. 13(1), pages 61-85.
  6. Freeman, Chris & Louca, Francisco, 2002. "As Time Goes By: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199251056.
  7. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Endogenous Technological Change," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2135, David K. Levine.
  8. William Clinton & A. Gore, 1993. "Technology For America'S Growth," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 88-91.
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