Malthus in Sweden
rates in 18th- and 19th-century Sweden with a seven-grade scale over harvest outcomes in the county where the parish was located. We find a Malthusian pattern: a good harvest one year leads to lower death rates, and higher birth and marriage rates, in particular the following year; for death rates there is also an effect in the same year. The effects are large. For example, a crop failure raises the death rate by 15%, and lowers birth and marriage rates by about 10%, in the following year.
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