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Forbearance and Prompt Corrective Action


  • Narayana Kocherlakota
  • Ilhyock Shim

    () (Monetary and Eocnomic Department Bank for International Settlements`)


This paper investigates whether a bank regulator should terminate problem banks promptly or exercise forbearance. We construct a dynamic model economy in which entrepreneurs pledge collateral, borrow from banks, and invest in long-term projects. We assume that collateral value has aggregate risk over time, that in any period entrepreneurs can abscond with the projects but losing the collateral, and that depositors can withdraw deposits. We show that optimal regulation exhibits forbearance if the ex-ante probability of collapse in collateral value is sufficiently low, but exhibits prompt termination of problem banks if this probability is sufficiently high.
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Suggested Citation

  • Narayana Kocherlakota & Ilhyock Shim, 2005. "Forbearance and Prompt Corrective Action," 2005 Meeting Papers 324, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed005:324

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Maximilian J.B. Hall, 1998. "Financial Reform in Japan," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1552.
    2. Dekle, Robert & Kletzer, Kenneth, 2003. "The Japanese banking crisis and economic growth: Theoretical and empirical implications of deposit guarantees and weak financial regulation," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 305-335, September.
    3. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Private and Public Supply of Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 1-40, February.
    4. Sleet, Christopher & Smith, Bruce D, 2000. "Deposit Insurance and Lender-of-Last-Resort Functions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 518-575, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Arellano, Cristina & Kocherlakota, Narayana, 2014. "Internal debt crises and sovereign defaults," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(S), pages 68-80.
    2. Masahiko Egami & Tadao Oryu, 2013. "An Excursion-Theoretic Approach to Regulator's Bank Reorganization Problem," Papers 1311.3019,
    3. Ilhyock Shim & Goetz von Peter, 2007. "Distress selling and asset market feedback," BIS Working Papers 229, Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Eijffinger, Sylvester C W & Nijskens, Rob, 2012. "A dynamic analysis of bank bailouts and constructive ambiguity," CEPR Discussion Papers 8953, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Ilhyock Shim, 2011. "Dynamic Prudential Regulation: Is Prompt Corrective Action Optimal?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(8), pages 1625-1661, December.
    6. Eijffinger, Sylvester C W & Nijskens, Rob, 2011. "Complementing Bagehot: Illiquidity and insolvency resolution," CEPR Discussion Papers 8603, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2012. "Taming SIFIs," Working Papers 649, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    8. Xi Chen & Michael Funke, 2013. "Real-Time Warning Signs of Emerging and Collapsing Chinese House Price Bubbles," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 223(1), pages 39-48, February.
    9. Vollmer, Uwe & Wiese, Harald, 2013. "Minimum capital requirements, bank supervision and special resolution schemes. Consequences for bank risk-taking," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 487-497.
    10. Lucchetta, Marcella & Moretto, Michele & Parigi, Bruno M., 2018. "Systematic risk, bank moral hazard, and bailouts," Research Discussion Papers 2/2018, Bank of Finland.
    11. Robert E. Hall, 2008. "Equity Depletion from Government-Guaranteed Debt," NBER Working Papers 14581, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Ignatowski, Magdalena & Korte, Josef & Werger, Charlotte, 2015. "Between capture and discretion - The determinants of distressed bank treatment and expected government support," Working Paper Series 1835, European Central Bank.
    13. Marcella Lucchetta & Michele Moretto & Bruno Maria Parigi, 2018. "Systematic Risk, Bank Moral Hazard, and Bailouts," CESifo Working Paper Series 6878, CESifo Group Munich.
    14. repec:eee:finsta:v:30:y:2017:i:c:p:229-239 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. David VanHoose, 2007. "Market Discipline and Supervisory Discretion in Banking: Reinforcing or Conflicting Pillars of Basel II?," NFI Working Papers 2007-WP-06, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
    16. Loveland, Robert, 2016. "How prompt was regulatory corrective action during the financial crisis?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 16-36.
    17. Xavier Freixas & Bruno Maria Parigi, 2007. "Banking Regulation and Prompt Corrective Action," CESifo Working Paper Series 2136, CESifo Group Munich.
    18. Bosma, Jakob J., 2016. "Dueling policies: Why systemic risk taxation can fail," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 132-147.

    More about this item


    risky collateral; limited enforcement; banking regulation; optimal social contract.;

    JEL classification:

    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty


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