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The invisible polluter: Can regulators save consumer surplus?


  • Contreras, Javier
  • Krawczyk, Jacek
  • Zuccollo, James


Consider an electricity market populated by competitive agents using thermal generating units. Such generation involves the emission of pollutants, on which a regulator might impose constraints. Transmission capacities for sending energy may naturally be restricted by the grid facilities. Both pollution standards and trans mission capacities can impose several constraints upon the joint strategy space of the agents. We propose a coupled constraints equilibrium as a solution to the regulator’s problem of avoiding both congestion and excessive pollution. Using the coupled constraints’ Lagrange multipliers as taxation coefficients the regulator can compel the agents to obey the multiple constraints. However, for this modification of the players’ payoffs to induce the required behaviour a coupled constraints equilibrium needs to exist and must also be unique. A three-node market example with a dc model of the transmission line constraints described in [8] and [2] possesses these properties. We extend it here to utilise a two-period load duration curve and, in result, obtain a two-period game. The implications of the game solutions obtained for several weights, which the regulator can use to vary the level of generators’ responsibilities for the constraints’ satisfaction, for consumer and producer surpluses will be discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Contreras, Javier & Krawczyk, Jacek & Zuccollo, James, 2008. "The invisible polluter: Can regulators save consumer surplus?," MPRA Paper 9890, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:9890

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Steffan Berridge & Jacek Krawczyk, "undated". "Relaxation Algorithms in Finding Nash Equilibrium," Computing in Economics and Finance 1997 159, Society for Computational Economics.
    2. Krawczyk, Jacek B., 2005. "Coupled constraint Nash equilibria in environmental games," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 157-181, June.
    3. Krawczyk, Jacek & Zuccollo, James, 2006. "NIRA-3: An improved MATLAB package for finding Nash equilibria in infinite games," MPRA Paper 1119, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Boucekkine, Raouf & Krawczyk, Jacek B. & Vallée, Thomas, 2010. "Towards an understanding of tradeoffs between regional wealth, tightness of a common environmental constraint and the sharing rules," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1813-1835, September.
    2. Francisco Facchinei & Lorenzo Lampariello, 2011. "Partial penalization for the solution of generalized Nash equilibrium problems," Journal of Global Optimization, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 39-57, May.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D70 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - General
    • C63 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computational Techniques
    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games


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