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Energy Intensity of GDP: A Nonlinear Estimation of Determinants in Iran


  • Heidari, Hassan
  • Babaei Balderlou, Saharnaz
  • Ebrahimi Torki, Mahyar


Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation’s economy. Many factors influence a country’s energy intensity. In this paper, however, we note the effective factors of energy intensity and decompose it by applying Logistic Smooth Transition Regression (LSTR) in Iran during the period 1980- 2013. The main factors are the ratio of the added value of services to GDP (explaining both linear and nonlinear part of the energy intensity), the percentage of internet users, income per capita and Human Development Index (explaining nonlinear part of the energy intensity). The results indicated that the lifestyle and structural changes had a significant and considerable effect on decreasing energy intensity and that the ratio of services value-added to GDP as a transition variable caused an asymmetric behavior of energy intensity affected from explanatory variables. The most effective factor on energy intensity was Human Development Index

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  • Heidari, Hassan & Babaei Balderlou, Saharnaz & Ebrahimi Torki, Mahyar, 2016. "Energy Intensity of GDP: A Nonlinear Estimation of Determinants in Iran," MPRA Paper 79237, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:79237

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Energy Intensity; Energy Efficiency; LSTR Model; Iran;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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