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Private Sector R&D in the New Member States: Hungary

Author

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  • Havas, Attila

Abstract

This report addresses two main topics, R&D and innovation data availability and reliability in Hungary, as well as private sector R&D activities. Practically all relevant R&D data are collected in Hungary, but there are two major problems. Only a limited set of data are published, and thus made available free of charge. Obviously, this practice prevents detailed analyses, required both for deepening our theoretical understanding of RTDI processes, as well as for policy purposes. Further, the way in which data protection is understood and implemented also poses a challenge from the point of view of theoretical investigations, policy analysis, and ultimately policy-making. For instance, the list of R&D performing companies is not available, and thus it is not possible to conduct even the most elementary calculations, e.g. to establish how many of the top exporters conduct R&D activities. It would be a fairly simple and cheap exercise, and given the weight of exporting firms in the small, open Hungarian economy, a rather pertinent one. It is not possible to analyse the impacts of R&D and innovation on micro-economic performance, either, although these three sets of data (R&D, innovation, and company performance data) are collected – but using different surveys and thus stored in different data sets, which cannot be linked for legal restrictions. In other words, public money is spent on collecting data, which cannot be used for analyses aimed at supporting public policies. The sectoral case studies confirm the dominant role of foreign-owned firms in RTDI activities. Foreign-owned firms tend to be large, and thus the decisive share of BERD is performed by large enterprises. Pharmaceuticals industry is the most R&D intensive sector in Hungary. The sectoral research system has been radically restructured during the past fifteen years as foreign pharmaceuticals firms became majority owners in most companies, pursuing global R&D strategies. In Hungary, they focus on the development of generic drugs. Thus, the number of research projects has decreased, but the allocation of R&D expenditures became more efficient. The most important trends in the world’s medical instruments industry play a determining role in the innovation activities of the Hungarian companies. These trends include the increasing use of IT systems for the support of medical equipment, the revolution of digital imaging equipment and the expansion of the home-use appliances market. Besides research and development of the traditional equipment, Hungarian medical equipment manufacturers proved successful in the development and application of these product families. Automotive industry has been traditionally less R&D intensive, yet, innovation, R&D and engineering skills are becoming decisive factors of success for automotive firms, too, given the fierce competition, requiring improved products in terms of safety, comfort, and fuel efficiency. Interviews suggest emerging co-operation between automotive firms, on the one hand, and university departments as well as other R&D units, on the other. More recently, some foreign investors are setting up either their in-house R&D units or joint research groups with universities. Besides professional excellence, there is a considerable cost advantage in this field, too. Further, various policy schemes have also been introduced to foster innovation activities in the automotive industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Havas, Attila, 2006. "Private Sector R&D in the New Member States: Hungary," MPRA Paper 55786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:55786
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/55786/1/MPRA_paper_55786.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Malerba, Franco, 2002. "Sectoral systems of innovation and production," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 247-264, February.
    2. Vincent Frigant, 2002. "Geographical proximity and supplying relationships in modular production," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 742-755, December.
    3. Adam Swain, 1998. "Governing the Workplace: The Workplace and Regional Development Implications of Automotive Foreign Direct Investment in Hungary," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(7), pages 653-671.
    4. Attila Havas, Attila, 1995. "Hungarian car parts industry at a cross-roads: Fordism versus lean production," MPRA Paper 79305, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Sako, Mari & Helper, Susan, 1998. "Determinants of trust in supplier relations: Evidence from the automotive industry in Japan and the United States," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 387-417, March.
    6. Helper, Susan, 1991. "Strategy and Irreversibility in Supplier Relations: The Case of the U.S. Automobile Industry," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(04), pages 781-824, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Havas, Attila, 2010. "Diversity in firms’ innovation strategies and activities: Main findings of interviews and implications in the context of the Hungarian national," MPRA Paper 55852, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private sector R&D; automotive components; pharmaceuticals; medical equipment; Hungary;

    JEL classification:

    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • L62 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment; Related Parts and Equipment
    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • L69 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Other
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • P31 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

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