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Is the real effective exchange rate biased against the PPP hypothesis?


  • Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel
  • Wallace, Frederick
  • Gómez-Zaldívar, Manuel


We show that the use of the real effective exchange rate to test for purchasing power parity, as in Astorga (2012) and other studies, introduces a bias against finding evidence of PPP. The bias is illustrated using unit root tests applied to bilateral real rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel & Wallace, Frederick & Gómez-Zaldívar, Manuel, 2012. "Is the real effective exchange rate biased against the PPP hypothesis?," MPRA Paper 42488, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:42488

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Astorga, Pablo, 2012. "Mean reversion in long-horizon real exchange rates: Evidence from Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1529-1550.
    2. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Ali M. Kutan & Su Zhou, 2008. "Do Real Exchange Rates Follow a Nonlinear Mean Reverting Process in Developing Countries," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 74(4), pages 1049-1062, April.
    3. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    4. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
    5. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    6. Sollis, Robert & Leybourne, Stephen & Newbold, Paul, 2002. "Tests for Symmetric and Asymmetric Nonlinear Mean Reversion in Real Exchange Rates," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(3), pages 686-700, August.
    7. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    8. Alan M. Taylor, 2002. "A Century Of Purchasing-Power Parity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 139-150, February.
    9. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Hegerty, Scott W. & Kutan, Ali M., 2009. "Is PPP sensitive to time-varying trade weights in constructing real effective exchange rates?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 1001-1008, August.
    10. Arize, Augustine C., 2011. "Purchasing power parity in LDCs: An empirical investigation," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 56-71.
    11. George Kapetanios, 2005. "Unit-root testing against the alternative hypothesis of up to m structural breaks," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 123-133, January.
    12. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Exactly Median-Unbiased Estimation of First Order Autoregressive/Unit Root Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(1), pages 139-165, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Curran & Adnan Velic, 2016. "Real Exchange Rate Persistence and Country Characteristics," Villanova School of Business Department of Economics and Statistics Working Paper Series 31, Villanova School of Business Department of Economics and Statistics.

    More about this item


    PPP; real effective exchange rate; stationarity;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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