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Generalized Impulse Response Analysis: General or Extreme?


  • Hyeongwoo, Kim


This note discusses a pitfall of using the generalized impulse response function (GIRF) in vector autoregressive (VAR) models (Pesaran and Shin, 1998). The GIRF is general because it is invariant to the ordering of the variables in the VAR. The GIRF, in fact, is extreme because it yields a set of response functions that are based on extreme identifying assumptions that contradict each other, unless the covariance matrix is diagonal. With an empirical example, the present note demonstrates that the GIRF may yield quite misleading economic inferences.

Suggested Citation

  • Hyeongwoo, Kim, 2009. "Generalized Impulse Response Analysis: General or Extreme?," MPRA Paper 17014, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:17014

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
    2. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S. & Bergman, Michael, 2004. "Dissecting the PPP puzzle: the unconventional roles of nominal exchange rate and price adjustments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 135-150, October.
    3. Koop, Gary & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Potter, Simon M., 1996. "Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 119-147, September.
    4. Boyd, Derick & Caporale, Gugielmo Maria & Smith, Ron, 2001. "Real Exchange Rate Effects on the Balance of Trade: Cointegration and the Marshall-Lerner Condition," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 187-200, July.
    5. Huang, Ying & Neftci, Salih N. & Guo, Feng, 2008. "Swap curve dynamics across markets: Case of US dollar versus HK dollar," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 79-93, February.
    6. Pesaran, H. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 1998. "Generalized impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-29, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bastos, Fabiano & Angelo Divino, Jose, 2009. "Exchange rate and output fluctuations in the small open economy of Mauritius," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5065, The World Bank.
    2. Liping Gao & Hyeongwoo Kim & Richard Saba, 2013. "How Does the Oil Price Shock Affect Consumers?," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2013-04, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
    3. Ülkü, Numan & Demirci, Ebru, 2012. "Joint dynamics of foreign exchange and stock markets in emerging Europe," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 55-86.
    4. Jin Zhang and David C. Broadstock, 2016. "The Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth for China in a Time-varying Framework," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(China Spe).
    5. Haakon Kavli & Kevin Kotzé, 2014. "Spillovers in Exchange Rates and the Effects of Global Shocks on Emerging Market Currencies," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(2), pages 209-238, June.
    6. Stefan Fiesel & Marliese Uhrig-Homburg, 2016. "Illiquidity Transmission in a Three-Country Framework: A Conditional Approach," Schmalenbach Business Review, Springer;Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft, vol. 17(3), pages 261-284, December.
    7. Thomas Theobald & Peter Hohlfeld, 2017. "Why have the recent oil price declines not stimulated global economic growth?," IMK Working Paper 185-2017, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    8. Kim, Hyeongwoo & Thompson, Henry, 2014. "Wages in a factor proportions model with energy input," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 495-501.
    9. Kim, Hyeongwoo, 2012. "VECM estimations of the PPP reversion rate revisited: The conventional role of relative price adjustment restored," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 223-238.
    10. Randolph Beard, T. & Ford, George S. & Kim, Hyeongwoo, 2014. "Capital investment and employment in the information sector," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 371-382.
    11. Kim, Hyeongwoo & Thompson, Henry, 2009. "Factor Proportions Wages in a Structural Vector Autoregression," MPRA Paper 17798, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Numan Ülkü & Petar Petrov, 2015. "How Reliable Are the Findings of ‘Foreign’ Investor Studies That Use TIC Data? A Look from the Host Market," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 521-553, December.

    More about this item


    Generalized Impulse Response Function; Orthogonalized Impulse Response Function; Vector Autoregressive Models;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation

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