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Reichtum in Niedersachsen und anderen Bundesländern – Ergebnisse aus der Einkommensteuer-Geschäftsstatistik 2003 für Selbständige (Freie Berufe und Unternehmer) und abhängige Beschäftigte
[Richness in Lower Saxony and Other German Federal States (Bundesländer) - Results Based on the German Wage and Income Tax Statistics 2003 for Professions, Entrepeneurs and Employees]


  • Böhm, Paul
  • Merz, Joachim


This contribution analyzes top incomes in the German Federal States for 2003 with focus on Lower-Saxony. Based on the microdata of the German Wage and Income Tax Current Statistics (Einkommensteuer-Geschäftsstatistik) for the first time richness rates and intensities of richness are examined for the self-employed as professions and entrepreneurs as well as for employees. We found large differences between the German Federal States and occupational groups. Even if the share of rich persons in the group of self-employed are substantially higher than in the group of employees the situation of the self-employed varies much between the German Federal States.

Suggested Citation

  • Böhm, Paul & Merz, Joachim, 2008. "Reichtum in Niedersachsen und anderen Bundesländern – Ergebnisse aus der Einkommensteuer-Geschäftsstatistik 2003 für Selbständige (Freie Berufe und Unternehmer) und abhängige Beschäftigte
    ," MPRA Paper 16301, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:16301

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2006. "The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 200-205, May.
    2. Merz Joachim, 2003. "Was fehlt in der EVS?. Eine Verteilungsanalyse hoher Einkommen mit der verknüpften Einkommensteuerstatistik für Selbständige und abhängig Beschäftigte / What is Missing in the EVS?. A Distributional A," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 223(1), pages 58-90, February.
    3. Joachim Merz & Markus Zwick, 2005. "Hohe Einkommen: Eine Verteilungsanalyse für Freie Berufe, Unternehmer und abhängig Beschäftigte mit Mikrodaten der Einkommensteuerstatistik," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 125(2), pages 269-298.
    4. Atkinson, A. B. & Piketty, Thomas (ed.), 2007. "Top Incomes Over the Twentieth Century: A Contrast Between Continental European and English-Speaking Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199286881.
    5. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
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    More about this item


    Regional income analysis; income richness; top income; self-employment; professions and entrepreneurs; Wage and Income Tax Statistics.;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand


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