Modeling long-term electricity forward prices
In contrast to forwards and futures on storable commodities, prices of long-term electricity forwards exhibit a dynamics different to that of short-term and mid-term prices. We model long-term electricity forward prices through demand and supply for electricity, adjusted with a risk premium. Long-term prices of electricity, oil, coal, natural gas, emission allowance, imported electricity and aluminum are modeled with a vector autoregressive model. To estimate the model we use weekly prices of far-maturity forwards relevant for Nordic electricity market. Electricity prices experienced few substantial shocks during the period analyzed, however, we found no evidence of a structural break. Cointegration analysis indicates two stationary cointegrating vectors. Nord Pool price is found significant in the short- and the long-run model, while the gas price is insignificant in both. Other variables are significant only in the long-run model. The model shows some influence of the risk premium, however not on the long-term electricity forwards at Nord Pool.
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- Hendrik Bessembinder & Michael L. Lemmon, 2002. "Equilibrium Pricing and Optimal Hedging in Electricity Forward Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1347-1382, 06.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1997. " The Stochastic Behavior of Commodity Prices: Implications for Valuation and Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 923-73, July.
- Diko Pavel & Lawford Steve & Limpens Valerie, 2006. "Risk Premia in Electricity Forward Prices," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(3), pages 1-24, September.
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