The lexicographic preference for a son: evidence from household data in Vietnam
This paper examines son preferences by specifying sex composition by birth order of existing children as key independent variables. The results indicate a lexicographic preference for a son by mothers aged 50 years and older. Mothers without a son are also under substantial pressure to bear more children and shorten their birth spacing. However, once a family includes a son, parents do not consider sex composition over other decisions on family size and fertility timing. It would appear that the preference for a son is relatively stronger for some birth orders in the northern regions of Vietnam but slightly weaker in the Central Highlands and South Central Coast. In addition, while women are important in the Vietnamese labor force, the level of preference for sons does not differ across income at lower birth orders. We also obtain mixed results for son preferences if we include mothers less than 50 years of age in our analysis.
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- Jonathan Haughton & Dominique Haughton, 1998. "Are simple tests of son preference useful? An evaluation using data from Vietnam," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 11(4), pages 495-516.
- Wataru Kureishi & Midori Wakabayashi, 2011. "Son preference in Japan," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(3), pages 873-893, July.
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