IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Investment timing with fixed and proportional costs of external financing


  • Michi Nishihara

    () (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)

  • Takashi Sshibata

    () (Graduate School of Social Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University)


We develop a dynamic model in which a firm exercises an option to expand production with cash balance and costly external funds. While related papers explain their results only by numerical examples, we analytically prove the following results. In the presence of only a proportional cost of external financing, the firm with more cash balance invests earlier; however, the presence of both proportional and fixed costs leads to a non-monotonic relation between the investment time and cash balance. The firm with more cash balance invests later to save a fixed cost, particularly when the cash balance is close to the investment cost. Our results can potentially account for a variety of empirical results concerning the relation between investment volume and financing constraints.

Suggested Citation

  • Michi Nishihara & Takashi Sshibata, 2011. "Investment timing with fixed and proportional costs of external financing," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 11-29, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  • Handle: RePEc:osk:wpaper:1129

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cleary, Sean & Povel, Paul & Raith, Michael, 2007. "The U-Shaped Investment Curve: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(01), pages 1-39, March.
    2. Shibata, Takashi & Nishihara, Michi, 2012. "Investment timing under debt issuance constraint," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 981-991.
    3. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1991. "Corporate Structure, Liquidity, and Investment: Evidence from Japanese Industrial Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(1), pages 33-60.
    4. Svetlana Boyarchenko, 2004. "Irreversible Decisions and Record-Setting News Principles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 557-568, June.
    5. Suresh Sundaresan & Neng Wang, 2007. "Investment under Uncertainty with Strategic Debt Service," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 256-261, May.
    6. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    7. Hirth, Stefan & Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese, 2010. "Investment timing, liquidity, and agency costs of debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 243-258, April.
    8. Christopher A. Hennessy & Toni M. Whited, 2005. "Debt Dynamics," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1129-1165, June.
    9. Mark Broadie & Jérôme Detemple, 1997. "The Valuation of American Options on Multiple Assets," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 241-286.
    10. Glenn W. Boyle & Graeme A. Guthrie, 2003. "Investment, Uncertainty, and Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2143-2166, October.
    11. Altinkilic, Oya & Hansen, Robert S, 2000. "Are There Economies of Scale in Underwriting Fees? Evidence of Rising External Financing Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(1), pages 191-218.
    12. Shibata, Takashi & Nishihara, Michi, 2010. "Dynamic investment and capital structure under manager-shareholder conflict," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 158-178, February.
    13. Milne, Alistair & Robertson, Donald, 1996. "Firm behaviour under the threat of liquidation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1427-1449, August.
    14. Michi Nishihara & Takashi Shibata, 2010. "Interactions between Preemptive Competition and a Financing Constraint," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 1013-1042, December.
    15. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    16. Ernesto Mordecki, 2002. "Optimal stopping and perpetual options for Lévy processes," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 473-493.
    17. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    18. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Joao F. Gomes, 2001. "Financing Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1263-1285, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Nishihara, Michi & Shibata, Takashi, 2013. "The effects of external financing costs on investment timing and sizing decisions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1160-1175.

    More about this item


    Real options; investment timing; costly external financing; growth option; optimal stopping.;

    JEL classification:

    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:osk:wpaper:1129. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Atsuko SUZUKI). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.