Consumption of Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tar under Anti-smoking Policies: Japan as a Case Study
Japan has implemented a number of anti-smoking policies; these include information disclosures, taxation, and smoking bans. These measures have increased the information available to consumers, as well as tax rates on tobacco products. First, this paper shows, theoretically, the association between a lack of information and over-consumption of cigarettes, and then examines the effects of smoking policies using monthly data from 1951 to 1999. Long-term policies have had greater effects than short-term policies. Taxation has reduced consumption, but income differences have had no significant effect. Following health disclosures in 1964 and 1967, many consumers switched to filtered cigarettes and low-nicotine and low-tar products, respectively. The move to lower tar and nicotine products was further accelerated by the "harmful to health" label applied to cigarettes in 1972, although many smokers then raised the number of cigarettes they smoked to keep up their intake of nicotine. Other policies have decreased cigarette, nicotine, and tar consumption since 1972.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2004|
|Date of revision:||Mar 2006|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.econ.osaka-u.ac.jp/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stigler, George J & Becker, Gary S, 1977. "De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 76-90, March.
- Gary S. Becker & Michael Grossman & Kevin M. Murphy, 1990.
"An Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Addiction,"
NBER Working Papers
3322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary S. Becker & Michael Grossman & Kevin M. Murphy, 1990. "An Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Addiction," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 61, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Jonathan Gruber & Botond Köszegi, 2001. "Is Addiction "Rational"? Theory and Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1261-1303.
- Ippolito, Pauline M. & Ippolito, Richard A., 1984. "Measuring the value of life saving from consumer reactions to new information," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1-2), pages 53-81, November.
- Chaloupka, Frank, 1991.
"Rational Addictive Behavior and Cigarette Smoking,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 722-42, August.
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-55, March-Apr.
- Hu, Teh-Wei & Sung, Hai-Yen & Keeler, Theodore E, 1995. "The State Antismoking Campaign and the Industry Response: The Effects of Advertising on Cigarette Consumption in California," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 85-90, May.
- Matthew C. Farrelly & William N. Evans & Edward Montgomery, 1999.
"Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 728-747, September.
- Andrew Clark & Fabrice Etilé, 2001.
"Do Health Changes Affect Smoking? Evidence from British Panel Data,"
DELTA Working Papers
2001-16, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Clark, Andrew & Etile, Fabrice, 2002. "Do health changes affect smoking? Evidence from British panel data," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 533-562, July.
- Chaloupka, Frank J. & Warner, Kenneth E., 2000.
"The economics of smoking,"
Handbook of Health Economics,
in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 29, pages 1539-1627
- Goldbaum, David, 2000. "Life Cycle Consumption of a Harmful and Addictive Good," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(3), pages 458-69, July.
- Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy, 1986.
"A Theory of Rational Addiction,"
University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State
41, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Auld, M. Christopher & Grootendorst, Paul, 2004.
"An empirical analysis of milk addiction,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1117-1133, November.
- Ichiro Gombi & Shinsuke Ikeda, 2003. "Habit Formation And The Transfer Paradox," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 54(4), pages 361-380.
- Ippolito, Pauline M, 1981. "Information and the Life Cycle Consumption of Hazardous Goods," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 19(4), pages 529-58, October.
- Bardsley, Peter & Olekalns, Nilss, 1999.
"Cigarette and Tobacco Consumption: Have Anti-smoking Policies Made a Difference?,"
The Economic Record,
The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 75(230), pages 225-40, September.
- Bardsley, P. & Olekans, N., 1998. "Cigarette and Tobacco Consumption: Have Anti-Smoking Policies Made a Difference?," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 615, The University of Melbourne.
- Junmin Wan, 2005. "Rational Addiction with Optimal Inventories: Theory and Evidence from Cigarette Purchases in Japan," ISER Discussion Paper 0641, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
- Kim Haden, 1990. "The Demand for Cigarettes in Japan," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 72(2), pages 446-450.
- Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:osk:wpaper:0412r. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Atsuko SUZUKI)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.