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Returns to Scale, Technical Progress and Total Factor Productivity Growth in New Zealand Industries

  • Kevin J Fox

    ()

    (School of Economics, & CAER, University of New South Wales)

This paper reviews and applies some recently proposed methods for separating total factor productivity (TFP) growth into contributions from technical progress and returns to scale, allowing for imperfectly competitive markets. The methods are applied to New Zealand data, using a recently available dataset on nine market-sector industries and the aggregate market sector, 1988-2002. The findings suggest that there has been little contribution from technical progress to TFP growth, but increasing returns to scale may have played a substantial role. However, the results are not statistically satisfactory for several industries, and are quite sensitive to the model used. This highlights the need for more work on both data and analysis if a better understanding is to be had of New Zealand’s productivity performance.

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File URL: http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2005/05-04/twp05-04.pdf
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Paper provided by New Zealand Treasury in its series Treasury Working Paper Series with number 05/04.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:nzt:nztwps:05/04
Contact details of provider: Postal: New Zealand Treasury, PO Box 3724, Wellington, New Zealand
Phone: +64-4-472 2733
Fax: +64-4-473 0982
Web page: http://www.treasury.govt.nz

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  1. Morrison, Catherine J, 1992. "Unraveling the Productivity Growth Slowdown in the United States, Canada and Japan: The Effects of Subequilibrium, Scale Economies and Markups," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 381-93, August.
  2. Burnside, Craig, 1996. "Production function regressions, returns to scale, and externalities," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 177-201, April.
  3. Nathan McLellan, 2004. "Measuring Productivity using the Index Number Approach: An Introduction," Treasury Working Paper Series 04/05, New Zealand Treasury.
  4. Beaudry, Paul & Devereux, Michael B., 1995. "Money and the real exchange rate with sticky prices and increasing returns," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 55-101, December.
  5. Kevin Fox & Ulrich Kohli & Ronald Warren, 2003. "Sources of growth and output gaps in New Zealand: New methods and evidence," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(1), pages 67-92.
  6. White, Kenneth J, 1978. "A General Computer Program for Econometric Methods-Shazam," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 239-40, January.
  7. Hintermaier, Thomas, 2003. "On the minimum degree of returns to scale in sunspot models of the business cycle," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 400-409, June.
  8. Guo, Jang-Ting, 2004. "Increasing returns, capital utilization, and the effects of government spending," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1059-1078, March.
  9. Diewert, W. Erwin & Fox, Kevin J., 2008. "On the estimation of returns to scale, technical progress and monopolistic markups," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 174-193, July.
  10. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2232, David K. Levine.
  11. Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
  12. Philippe Weil, 1989. "Increasing Returns and Animal Spirits," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/8681, Sciences Po.
  13. Fox, Kevin J & Kohli, Ulrich & Warren, Ronald S, Jr, 2002. "Accounting for Growth and Output Gaps: Evidence from New Zealand," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 78(242), pages 312-26, September.
  14. Basu, Susanto & Fernald, John G, 1997. "Returns to Scale in U.S. Production: Estimates and Implications," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(2), pages 249-83, April.
  15. Catherine J. Morrison & Donald Siegel, 1997. "External Capital Factors And Increasing Returns In U.S. Manufacturing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 647-654, November.
  16. Peter Mawson & Kenneth I Carlaw & Nathan McLellan, 2003. "Productivity Measurement: Alternative Approaches and Estimates," Treasury Working Paper Series 03/12, New Zealand Treasury.
  17. Charles I. Jones, 2004. "Growth and Ideas," NBER Working Papers 10767, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Roeger, Werner, 1995. "Can Imperfect Competition Explain the Difference between Primal and Dual Productivity Measures? Estimates for U.S. Manufacturing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(2), pages 316-30, April.
  19. Diamond, Peter A & Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production II: Tax Rules," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(3), pages 261-78, June.
  20. Kohli, Ulrich, 1993. "A Symmetric Normalized Quadratic GNP Function and the U.S. Demand for Imports and Supply of Exports," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(1), pages 243-55, February.
  21. Erwin Diewert & Denis Lawrence, 1999. "Measuring New Zealand’s Productivity," Treasury Working Paper Series 99/05, New Zealand Treasury.
  22. Diewert, W Erwin, 1983. " The Measurement of Waste within the Production Sector of an Open Economy," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 159-79.
  23. Basu, Susanto & Fernald, John G., 2002. "Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 963-991, June.
  24. Berndt, Ernst R & Khaled, Mohammed S, 1979. "Parametric Productivity Measurement and Choice among Flexible Functional Forms," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1220-45, December.
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