IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nwu/cmsems/1221.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Banks Versus Bonds: the Emergence and Persistence of Two Financial Systems

Author

Listed:
  • Sandeep Baliga
  • Ben Polak

Abstract

We use a simple graphical moral hazard model to compare monitored (non-traded) bank loans versus traded (non-monitored) bonds as sources of external funds for industry. We contrast the conditions that theoretically favour each system, such as the size and number of firms, with conditions prevailing when these financial systems evolved during the British and German industrial revolutions. Then, to address why different systems have persisted, we consider a larger model with entry so that firm size and number are endogenous. We show that multiple equilibria can exist if financiers take the industrial structure as given and vice versa, and we compare these equilibria in welfare terms. Finally, we argue that with, if bilateral co-ordination is possible, Anglo-Saxon style finance systems can only persist if they are efficient, but an economy can get stuck in an inefficient German style system.

Suggested Citation

  • Sandeep Baliga & Ben Polak, 1998. "Banks Versus Bonds: the Emergence and Persistence of Two Financial Systems," Discussion Papers 1221, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:nwu:cmsems:1221
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/research/math/papers/1221.pdf
    File Function: main text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Fohlin, Caroline, 1997. "Universal banking networks in pre-war Germany: new evidence from company financial data," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 201-225, September.
    2. M. Dewatripont & E. Maskin, 1995. "Credit and Efficiency in Centralized and Decentralized Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 541-555.
    3. Richard Tilly, 1998. "Universal Banking in Historical Perspective," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 154(1), pages 1-7, March.
    4. Charles W. Calomiris, 1998. "Universal Banking "American-Style"," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 154(1), pages 1-44, March.
    5. Allen, Franklin & Gale, Douglas, 1995. "A welfare comparison of intermediaries and financial markets in Germany and the US," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 179-209, February.
    6. Baker, George P, 1992. " Beatrice: A Study in the Creation and Destruction of Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1081-1119, July.
    7. Fremdling, Rainer & Tilly, Richard, 1976. "German Banks, German Growth, and Econometric History," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(02), pages 416-424, June.
    8. Charles W. Calomiris & Carlos D. Ramirez, 1996. "The Role Of Financial Relationships In The History Of American Corporate Finance," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(2), pages 52-73.
    9. Pollard, Sidney, 1964. "Fixed Capital in the Industrial Revolution in Britain," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 299-314, September.
    10. Sandeep Baliga & Ben Polak, 1995. "Banks versus Bonds: A Simple Theory of Comparative Financial Institutions," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1100, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nwu:cmsems:1221. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Fran Walker). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/cmnwuus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.