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Re-Interpreting the Failure of Foreign Exchange Market Efficiency Tests:Small Transaction Costs, Big Hysteresis Bands

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  • Richard E. Baldwin

Abstract

Small transaction costs and uncertainty imply that optimal cross-currency interest rate speculation is marked by a first-order hysteresis band. Consequently uncovered interest parity does not hold and market efficiency tests based on it are misspecified. Indeed measured prediction errors are a combination of true prediction errors and a wedge that consists of the "option value" of being in foreign currency and either plus or minus the transaction cost. Due to the nature of this wedge, we should expect measured prediction errors to be serially correlated, correlated with the current forward rate and perhaps have a non-zero mean, if the interest differential itself is serially correlated. The existence of the wedge helps account both for the failure of market efficiency tests and the difficulties in finding an empirically successful model of the risk premium.

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  • Richard E. Baldwin, 1990. "Re-Interpreting the Failure of Foreign Exchange Market Efficiency Tests:Small Transaction Costs, Big Hysteresis Bands," NBER Working Papers 3319, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3319
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    Cited by:

    1. Lucio Sarno & Giorgio Valente & Hyginus Leon, 2006. "Nonlinearity in Deviations from Uncovered Interest Parity: An Explanation of the Forward Bias Puzzle," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(3), pages 443-482, September.
    2. David W.R. Gruen & Marianne C. Gizycki, 1993. "Explaining Forward Discount Bias: Is it Anchoring?," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9307, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    3. Li, Dandan & Ghoshray, Atanu & Morley, Bruce, 2013. "An empirical study of nonlinear adjustment in the UIP model using a smooth transition regression model," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 109-120.
    4. Katarzyna Dąbrowska-Gruszczyńska & Marcin Gruszczyński, 2009. "The introduction of the euro in the perspective of accession and the challenges of absorption," Ekonomia journal, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, vol. 22.
    5. Baillie, Richard T. & Kilic, Rehim, 2006. "Do asymmetric and nonlinear adjustments explain the forward premium anomaly?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 22-47, February.
    6. McMillan, David G., 2009. "Forward interest rate premium and asymmetric adjustment: Evidence from 16 countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 258-273, April.
    7. Omer, Muhammad & de Haan, Jakob & Scholtens, Bert, 2013. "Does Uncovered Interest rate Parity Hold After All?," MPRA Paper 47572, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Wagner, Christian, 2012. "Risk-premia, carry-trade dynamics, and economic value of currency speculation," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 1195-1219.
    9. Pasricha, Gurnain Kaur, 2006. "Survey of Literature on Covered and Uncovered Interest Parities," MPRA Paper 22737, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Marcin Gruszczyński, 2007. "Repression versus free and controlled market. Research into the (weak) effectiveness of the Polish foreign currency (US dollar/zloty) market over the years 1983–1989 and 1991–2006," Ekonomia journal, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, vol. 19.
    11. Engel, Charles, 1996. "The forward discount anomaly and the risk premium: A survey of recent evidence," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 123-192, June.
    12. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2006. "Incomplete information processing: a solution to the forward discount puzzle," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jun.
    13. Muhammad Omer & Jakob de Haan & Bert Scholtens, 2014. "Testing uncovered interest rate parity using LIBOR," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(30), pages 3708-3723, October.
    14. Kees Koedijk & Clemens Kool, 1993. "Betting on the EMS," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 151-173, June.
    15. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2005. "Rational Inattention: A Solution to the Forward Discount Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 11633, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Derek Bond & Michael J. Harrison & Niall Hession & Edward J. O'Brien, 2006. "Some Empirical Observations on the Forward Exchange Rate Anomaly," Trinity Economics Papers tep2006, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
    17. Huisman, Ronald & Koedijk, Kees & Kool, Clemens & Nissen, Francois, 1998. "Extreme support for uncovered interest parity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 211-228, February.
    18. Fernando Fernández-Rodríguez & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero & Julián Andrada-Félix, "undated". "Nearest-Neighbour Predictions in Foreign Exchange Markets," Working Papers 2002-05, FEDEA.
    19. Gregory Goering & Michael Pippenger, 1994. "A note regarding ARCH and threshold processes: results from a Monte Carlo study," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(11), pages 210-213.
    20. Norman C. Miller, 2014. "Exchange Rate Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14981, April.
    21. Craighead, William D. & Davis, George K. & Miller, Norman C., 2010. "Interest differentials and extreme support for uncovered interest rate parity," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 723-732, October.
    22. Michael Pippenger & Gregory Goering, 2000. "Additional results on the power of unit root and cointegration tests under threshold processes," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(10), pages 641-644.
    23. Delgado, Francisco & Dumas, Bernard & Puopolo, Giovanni W., 2015. "Hysteresis bands on returns, holding period and transaction costs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 86-100.
    24. David W.R. Gruen & Gordon D. Menzies, 1991. "The Failure of Uncovered Interest Parity: Is it Near-rationality in the Foreign Exchange Market?," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9103, Reserve Bank of Australia.

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