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Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility

Author

Listed:
  • Raj Chetty
  • John N. Friedman
  • Emmanuel Saez
  • Nicholas Turner
  • Danny Yagan

Abstract

We characterize intergenerational income mobility at each college in the United States using data for over 30 million college students from 1999-2013. We document four results. First, access to colleges varies greatly by parent income. For example, children whose parents are in the top 1% of the income distribution are 77 times more likely to attend an Ivy League college than those whose parents are in the bottom income quintile. Second, children from low- and high-income families have similar earnings outcomes conditional on the college they attend, indicating that low-income students are not mismatched at selective colleges. Third, rates of upward mobility – the fraction of students who come from families in the bottom income quintile and reach the top quintile – differ substantially across colleges because low-income access varies significantly across colleges with similar earnings outcomes. Rates of bottom-to-top quintile mobility are highest at certain mid-tier public universities, such as the City University of New York and California State colleges. Rates of upper-tail (bottom quintile to top 1%) mobility are highest at elite colleges, such as Ivy League universities. Fourth, the fraction of students from low-income families did not change substantially between 2000-2011 at elite private colleges, but fell sharply at colleges with the highest rates of bottom-to-top-quintile mobility. Although our descriptive analysis does not identify colleges' causal effects on students' outcomes, the publicly available statistics constructed here highlight colleges that deserve further study as potential engines of upward mobility.

Suggested Citation

  • Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Emmanuel Saez & Nicholas Turner & Danny Yagan, 2017. "Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility," NBER Working Papers 23618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:23618
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    Cited by:

    1. Walker, Ian & Zhu, Yu, 2017. "University Selectivity and the Relative Returns to Higher Education: Evidence from the UK," GLO Discussion Paper Series 133, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    2. Alex Bell & Raj Chetty & Xavier Jaravel & Neviana Petkova & John Van Reenen, 2017. "Who Becomes an Inventor in America? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation," CEP Discussion Papers dp1519, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. repec:eee:aosoci:v:60:y:2017:i:c:p:21-36 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Weinstein, Russell, 2017. "Geography and Employer Recruiting," IZA Discussion Papers 11224, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. repec:eee:cysrev:v:85:y:2018:i:c:p:253-263 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:labeco:v:47:y:2017:i:c:p:48-63 is not listed on IDEAS

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    JEL classification:

    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General

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