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International Climate Finance to developing countries. Taking stock of the variety of bilateral, private and hybrid financing initiatives


  • Emilie Bécault

    (GGS, KU Leuven)

  • Axel Marx

    (GGS, KU Leuven)


The main objective of this working paper is to take a preliminary look at how climate finance to developing countries has been developing outside the multilateral realm and at times, even independently from states. To this end, we first provide a review of the core concepts used in the academic and policy discourses on global climate finance, and then proceed by mapping three types of non-multilateral financing initiatives: bilateral, private and hybrid. While we found significant evidence that the non-multilateral realm of climate finance to developing countries is growing both in scope and in diversity, there remains substantial obstacles to properly tracking and monitoring international climate financial flows to developing countries. In addition, our analysis suggests that a central question in current and future UN climate negotiations should be how to better link private finance to public funding institutions and instruments to scale up funding for adaptation activities in developing countries most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

Suggested Citation

  • Emilie Bécault & Axel Marx, 2015. "International Climate Finance to developing countries. Taking stock of the variety of bilateral, private and hybrid financing initiatives," BeFinD Working Papers 0109, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:nam:befdwp:0109

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    More about this item


    climate finance; climate flows; climate change; public-private partnerships; climate-related development aid; climate financing initiatives;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F55 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Institutional Arrangements

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