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Licensing and R&D Investment of Duopolistic Firms with Partially Complementary Technologies


  • Testuya Shinkai

    () (Kwansei Gakuin University)

  • Satoru Tanaka

    (Kobe City University of Foreign Studies)

  • Makoto Okamura

    (Hiroshima University)


We consider research and development (R&D) investment competition between duopolistic firms that independently invest in two complementary technologies to produce their products. By "partially complementary technologies", we mean that each firm can produce the goods without both technologies but they incur more redundant costs than with both technologies. We derive the investment competition equilibria in R&D of the two technologies with and without a licensing system. By comparing R&D investment levels in the two equilibria, we show that the licensing system discourages R&D investment in most cases; however, it encourages R&D investment in some cases when the duopolistic firms can produce the goods using both technologies. We also show that (cross-) licensing increases the expected social surplus at the symmetric equilibrium.

Suggested Citation

  • Testuya Shinkai & Satoru Tanaka & Makoto Okamura, 2005. "Licensing and R&D Investment of Duopolistic Firms with Partially Complementary Technologies," Discussion Paper Series 25, School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University, revised Mar 2005.
  • Handle: RePEc:kgu:wpaper:25

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Merges, Robert P. & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "On limiting or encouraging rivalry in technical progress: The effect of patent scope decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 1-24, September.
    2. Makoto Okamura & Testuya Shinkai & Satoru Tanaka, 2005. "A Cross-Licensing System Discourages R&D Investments In Completely Complementary Technologies," Discussion Paper Series 27, School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University, revised Sep 2005.
    3. Wesley M. Cohen & Richard R. Nelson & John P. Walsh, 2000. "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not)," NBER Working Papers 7552, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, January.
    5. Howard F. Chang, 1995. "Patent Scope, Antitrust Policy, and Cumulative Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(1), pages 34-57, Spring.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    partially complementary technologies; licensing system; duopoly; R&D investment;

    JEL classification:

    • D45 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Rationing; Licensing
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D


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